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There is a lot of great info in this book. Switch k andar 1 chip hoti hy jis ko ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit khty hy jis ki waja sy ye essa kar patta hy or ye apny andar 1 MAC table banata hy jis sy ye direct ussi PC ko data send karta hy jis ko wo jana hota hy yani unicast karta hy broadcast nahi.
Switch my 1 Broadcast Domain hota hy or per port py 1 single Collision Domain hota hy. Hierarchical module mai Switches ko unki Series, un ki Powers or technic k According design kia jata hy. Research k mutabik essa pata lagaya gaya hy k frame my jo error hoty hy wo zada tar start k 64 bytes k ander hi hoty hy or ye sirf unhi bytes ko check karta hy agar inhee my koi error hota hy tu ye frame ko wahi Discard kar dyta hy or agye send nahi karta.
Store and forward types of Switches jo data transfer karty hy wo sub sy zada reliable hota hy. Ye kessi type ki error Checking nahi karty qk sari Checking Distribution layer sy clear hoky Core layer k switches py aati hy jabhi ye koi error checking EasyPeezZi.
Essi ley hum waha Best series k switches lagaty hy qk agar core layer down hogi tu internal users ki outside communication or outside user ki internall user sy communication break hojaye gi. Administrative mode my hum switch ki ports ko khud sy configure karty hy or is k 4 mode hoty hy. Access mode sy 1 hi Vlan ka data carry hota hy ye hamesha aapni single port sy 1 hi vlan ka data travel karti hy multiple vlans ka nahi. Or Access ports security purpose k ley bhi banai jati hy qk ye ports auto as a trunk configure nahi hoti.
Ye donu hi mode hum switch py chor dyty hy or ye negotiable hoty hy Matlab samny wali port ko dekh k decide kia jata hy k port kis role my configure hogi agar wo access hy to wo bhi khud ko auto access configure karly gi or ager trunk hy to auto hi trunk configure hojaye gi.
Dynamic Auto: Discuss Operational Mode: Switch k 2 Operational Mode hoty hy basic mode 4 configure hoty hy but switch ki port 2 Operational Mode mai work karti hai which mention below.
By default Switch k ports Dynamic Desirable mode my hoti hy jabhi wo khud sy trunk ya access nahi banti jab tak hum ussy khud configure na kar dy. Cisco Device Modes: Window my jis tarha hamary users k kuch privileges hoty hy jessy user and admin essi tarha cisco ki devices ko configure karny k ley bhi kuch privileged ko hammy access karna parta hy ye modes alag alag task perform karny k ley use kiyee jaty hy.
Cisco device wo chahyee router hu ya switch in k basic 3 modes hoty hy. User Exec mode Security purpose k ley hota hy jaissy aager kessi ko router ya switch py sirf ye rights hy k wo sirf running-config dekh saky to wo sirf use Exec mode ko access kary ga kuch configuration karna chahye ga to nahi kar paye ga.
Qk user exec mode bhi limited commands ko accept karta hy jessy ping wagera. Is mode py hum show ki sari commands use kar sakty hy or kuch had tk configuration bhi kar sakty hy. Is mode ko access karny k bad humy Full Authority hoti hy router or switch ko configure karny ki.
Concept of Console port: Console port: Changing Switch Modes Commands: Interface mode Router physical interface configuration mode Router config-if. Router config-line. Router config-router. Contant U U. VTP Protocol: Eak hi switch py rehty howy switches k multiples portion create karna VLAN ki another example hai. Suppose k hamary network mai 5 buildings hai or wo sabhi same LAN segment ko use kar rahi hai without any configuration simple network ki tarha to is Scenario mai agar network mai koi broadcast create hoti hai to us ki waja sy hamara pora network down hojaye hai sari buildings ka.
Or separte network means separate broadcast domain so jab hum VLANs configure karty hai deparments wise ya building wise to switch apny single boradcast domain mai sy eak separate boradcast domain us VLAN k ley create karta hai or jitny bhi interfaces ya computers us VLAN ka part hoty hai wo sub eak hi switch py rehty howy bhi eak separate network ki tarha ACT karty hai.
Default VLAN: Management VLAN: Data VLAN: Native VLAN: DAT file in flash memory. Extended Range: Concept of Trunks Port: Agar hum switch ki last port lo trunk port nahi bannye gy to different VLANs k darmiyan communication nahi ho paye gi. Router on a Stick: Router on a stick ko inter VLAN routing bhi khty hy agar hum do different VLANs ko appas mai communicate bhi karana chty hai tu is conndition mai hammy 1 router ya L3 device ki need hoti hy qk router 2 different network k darmiyan communicate kar waata hy to essi ley hum is process ko inter VLAN routing bhi khty hy jis my 2 VLANs 1 different network my rehty howy bhi apas my communicate kar sakti hy is k ley hum router py DOT1Q protocol ko use karty howy Sub Interfaces banta hy or pher virtual links create karty hy jis ki help sy VLANs communicate kar pati hy.
Inter VLAN routing my router my do seprate interface ko use kia jata hy VLANs ko apas my communicate karwany k ley is ka disadvantage ye hy k router my bhut km interfaces hoty hy or agar humary pass 5 VLANs configure hai tu waha hum itny sary interfaces to nahi use kar sakta essi ley hum router on a stick trick ko use karty hy is my hum bs 1 hi interface ko use karty hy or ussi interface mai sub interfaces dot1q protocol ko use karty howy virtual interface create kar dyty hy jissy 1 hi interface py rehty howay sari VLANs apas my communicate kar rhi hoti hy or zada interfaces bhi use nahi hoty.
VTP Explanation: To hammy her switch py jaja k wohi VLAN create nahi karni parti or yahi sub sy bara benefit hy is protocol ka. VTP domain 1 administrative group hota hy or jin switches py VTP run karna hy un ka same domain my hona lazmi hy jabhi wo VLAN k database ko sary switches py synchronize kar saky gy or un ka domain name bhi same configure hona chayee the name is case sensative.
Server mode my ap khud sy VLAN banna bhi sakty hy us my editing bhi kar sakty hy or ussy delete bhi kar sakty hy. Client mode k switch my ap na to VLAN banna sakty hy na edit kar sakty hy or nahi delete kar sakty hy client mode k switch hamesha khud my VLANs ki information ko overwrite karty hy server mode k switch sy jessy hi server mode k switch my 1 VLAN create hoti hy to wo Switch foren hi apny network my khud sy connect sary switches ko 1 VTP update send karta hy or Client mode k sary switches us update ko accept karty hy or khud my wohi VLAN update kar lyty hy jo server mode switch my forcefully configure hoi hoti hy.
Transparent jaissy k name sy hi show ho rha hy matlab cross yani Arr Paarr. Cisco k Sary Switches py VTP enable hota hy or hum essy disable nahi kar sakty suppose 40 switches my sy kuch switches essy bhi hy jin my my koi bhi vla nahi banna chata qk waha VLAN ki koi need hi nahi hy to essy my ma us switch ko server mode py bhi chor nahi sakty qk pher us switch ko full rights mil jaye gy or mai VTP ko disable bhi nahi kar sakta to bs itnaa kar sakty hu k us switch ka mode Transparent configure kar sakty hy.
So transparent mode k switches ko hum as a disable man lyty hy qk wo VTP ki Update receive to karty hy or direct hi agye forward kar dyty hy means transparent mode k switches my VTP ki Update us switch sy cross means Arr Paarr ho jati hy. Is k ley hum switch py VTP configure karty waqt domain ka name configure karty hy jabhi us switch ko pata lagta hy k wo kon sy domain ka part hy.
Or ye domain name case sensitive hoty hy matlab sary switches py name 1 jaisa hi hona chaye ager small letter my hy to small my hi or agar capital letter my hy tu capital my hi. Configuration of VTP Server: Switch config Vtp mode client, server, transparent Switch config Vtp domain cisco Switch config Vtp password cisco optional Switch config Vtp version 1,2,3 Switch config Vtp pruning optional. Spanning Tree Protocol: Concept of Redundant Topology: STP ko samjhny sy phly ye samjhna zarori hy k Redundant Topology kia hoti hy.
So jab bhi hum apny network my multiple switches ko connect karty hy to is condition my hum 1 hi single link py depend nahi rehty qk agar essa hoga to wohi 1 link down hony per hamari Network sy connectivity break ho jaye gi.
Essa hum kar to dyty hy but multiple links create karny sy switches k darmiyaan multiple Frames bhi copy hojaty hy or essi topology ko hum redundant topology kehty hai the Diagram mention below. Broadcast Storming matlab ager koi PC Network my broadcast karta hy to wo broadcast us switch k donu interface sy out hogi jis ki waja sy her PC ko wohi broadcast 2 bar mily gi or ye broadcast 1 loop ki shakal my chalti hi jaye gi bar bar. Solutions of LoOp: To jaisy hi hum CISCO k switches ko multiple links sy connect karty hy STP auto run hota hy or multiple links my sy 1 links ko auto hi down kar dyta hy jis sy 1 time py 1 hi link up hota hy.
And for the backup jessy hi Up Link down hota hy to spanning Tree Protocol Foren hi us dosray link ko auto hi UP kar dyta hy jo hum ny Backup way k ley create kiya tha to is sy hum apny switch py multiple links create kar sakty hy. STP Overview: Or pher network switches my 3 tarha k Elections hoty hy. First Election: First election ye hota hy k network my mojood sary switches my sy ROOT switch kon banye ga jis k throw data travel hoga or wo pory network ki responsibility lyga.
Second Election: Or Root port bhi kabhi blocking state my nahi jatti ye hamesha forwarding state my hoti hy. Third Election: So0o0o Spanning Tree Protocol ka algorithm chalny k bad bhi agar koi port forwarding state my nahi jati to wo khud hi blocking state my chali jati hy so STP ka Algorithm kuch is tarha work karta hy.
Spanning tree Protocol Bridge I. Cisco ya kessi bhi switch ka apna 1 unique address hota hy 1 I. D hoti hy jessy hum Switch ki Bridge I. D khty hy. Or bridge I. D is ley khty hy qk switch sy phly Hub or us sy bhi phly bridges use hoty thy tu jab sy hi hum switch ki I. D ko Bridge I. Or ye bridge I.
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D hoti hy. Hum essa bhi keh satky hy k switch ka MAC address or priority mil k switch ki bridge banaty hy jessy hum bridge I. BPDU switches k darmiyan 1 message ko khty hy jo k unki connectivity ka status ko appas my share karty hy. BPDU ko hum hello message bhi khty hy jo k switches aappas my send karty hy takky unhy pata chal saky k sary switches UP hy or jaha sy BPDU ka reply nahi atta matlab Hello Message ka reply nahi receive hota to essi BPDU message k throw ye pata lag jata hy k kon sa switch network my down howa hy.
BPDU Process: BPDU k kuch rule hy jessy k. D OR apni bridge I. D aapas my exchange kary gy. BPDU my 1 timer hota hy jis sy wo auto us time k bad send and receive hoty hy or ye timer hum khud sy bhi set kar sakty hy BPDU my 3 tarha k timer use hoty hy or hum inhy manually bhi apni requirement k mutabik configure kar sakty hy. Hello Timer matlab kitni dair k bad dosray switch ko Hello message send kiyee jayee gy or ye by default 2sec hota hy.
Max age timer matlab kitni dair tak agar dosray switch sy BPDU message ka rply nahi aaya to hum ye man ly gy k dosra switch down hogaya hy or ye by default 20sec ka hota hy. Suppose k agar hamary kessi switch ki port blocking state my hoti hy or hum ussy Up kary to wo port Direct UP nahi hoti kuch time bad up hoti hy us port ki kuch states hoti hy jessy Blocking, Listening or Learning state jis my wo switch Mac address ko learn karta hy or pher wo forwarding state my jata hy.
Explanation about STP Election: Jis Switch ki Bridge I. D lowest hogi wohi switch Root bridge banny ga. Jessy k hammary bridge I. D my 2 chezzy hoti hy 1 Switch ka Mac address or 2 Us ki Priority value to Mac address to hum change nahi kar sakty hy tu jis bhi switch ki priority low hogi wo switch khud ko as a root switch consider kar lyga. D sy hota hy. Root Port my hum jo sub sy phli chez dekhty hy wo hoti hy cost to reach Root switch matlab wo kon sa rasta hy jis sy km cost per Root switch tak poucha ja sakta hy.
To ager cost bhi same ho to Root port decide hoti hy switch k Lower interface sy. Is case my bhi Switch ye dekhty hy k kis rasty ki cost kam hy Root Switch tak pouchny k ley to wo Switch Designated Switch ban jaye ga or us ki sari port Forwarding Sate my hoti hy jessy hum Designated Port bhi khty hy. Or agar cost same hogi to jis switch ki Bridge I.
D lowest hogi to wo Designated Switch ban jaye ga or in case ager Bridge I. D bhi same hy to is case my hum pher us switch k lowest interface sy decide kary gy k kon sa switch Designated Switch bannye ga.
To is tarha Spanning tree Protocol ka Algorithm work karta hy or STP ka election hota hy jis sy sub kuch decide hota hy. Or jab tak inhy BPDU message milty rahy gy yahi process chalta rahy ga per agar 15 sec tak BPDU ka rply nahi aya to switch consider kar ly gy k koi 1 switch down hogaya hy to jo port blocking state my hogi us k multiple links my wo port up hojaye gi or traffic waha sy janna choro.
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Concept of Ether-channel: The terminology of Ehter-Channel is that Jab hum multiple links create karty hy apny switches my network disaster sy bachny k ley to waha hum multiple links create karty hy jis sy network mai Loops create ho jatty hy.
Or Cisco k Switches my Loop sy bachny k ley Spanning Tree Protocol Work karta hy or hum Loops ki problem Sy bach jaty hy but jo multiple links hum create karty hy us my bs 1 hi link working hota hy or bakki sub down hoty hy ya ap chaye jitney bhi links create karly us my sy work bs 1 hi karyga or baki k sary interfaces Down State my rahy gy. So ether channel k throw mai apny down links ki speed bhi us single link py utilize kar sakta hu. In Short: How Ether-Channel Work: Ether Channel configure karty hi switch un sary links ko jo k Foult Tolerance ya backup k ley lagaye jaty hy ether channel un sub links ko 1 hi link samjhta hy or 1 hi link py un sub ki speed bhi hammy combine kar k dyta hy.
Ether Channel configure karty waqt hum un sari ports ko 1 channel my dalty hy jissy wo sari ports 1 physical link ya channel ban k act karti hy. Range of Ether-Channel: Ether channel mai Hum 2 sy ly kar 8 links ko configure kar k 1 physical link create kar sakty hy.
Benefits of Ether-Channel: Ether Channel hammy Backup links yani load sharing or redundant topology provide karta hy or hum ye Ether Channel Layer 2 or Layer 3 donu Switches py hi use kar sakty hy. Or is ka sub sy bara Faida ye hy k hum multiple links create kar k zada sy zada speed ko use kar sakty hy jissy network my communication fast hogi. LACP 1 industry type matlab open standard protocol hy.
LACP Modes: Details about IPv4 Addressing: IP address means k Ager hum apny kessi computers ko Network k sath connect karna chty hy or chty hy k wo computers appas my data bhi share kary eak dosry k sath to waha hammy hamary computers ki identity chyee hogi us ki source location or destination location ka computer ko pata hona chyee taky wo destination computer sy communicate kar saky.
Example Jessy k hummary mobiles phones agar hummay kessi sy bat karni hoti hy to hammy us person ka number chayee hota hy jis sy hammy bat karni hu Right. To same essi tarha hamary computer ko bhi numbers chaye hoty hy taky computers appas my communicate kar saky so yaha hum computers k number k ley IP address ka use karty hy jo un computers k ley un ka number ka kam karti hy or computers ko network sy connect kar k data shearing or communication provide karti hy. IPv6 implement hogya tha my but humary pass IPv4 ki range abhi bakki thi jabhi hum IPv4 ko hi ab tak use kar rahy thy.
Per ab ahista ahista IPv6 implement ho raha hy or kafi jagahu py ho bhi chukka hy. Class B to Class C to Discussion about IPv4: Ager hum IPv4 ki bat kary to IPv4 my 4 Octet hoty hy essi ley hum ussy 32 bit address khty hy or is ka Minimum number hota hy 1 or Maximum number hota hy IPv4 mai implement hoi thi or tab ussy 5 classes my define kiyaa gaya tha jis sy hum IPs ko apny network requirement k according use kar saky.
So agar my yaha bat karu k is ka largest number q hy so dekhy IPv4 my 4 octet hoty hy or her 1 octet 8 bit ka hota hy to agar hum Class A ki IP ko Use kary or is k sary octet k bits ko open kar dy to IP hammy kuch is tarha dekhy gi binary wording mai Subnet Mask: Or essi tarha ye Router ko bhi help karta hy Broadcasting rokny k ley jessy hi kessi 1 network ki Broadcast Router k pass jati hy to Router sub sy phly us IP ka Subnet Mask check karta hy agar wo Subnet Mask us k dosray interface sy connect Network sy match hota hy to Router ussy agye Forward kar dyta hy Or agar Subnet Mask same nahi hota to wo Broadcasting ko wahi rok dyta hy.
Wildcard Mask: Wildcard mask opposite hota hy subnet mask ky jaisy k hum subnet mask my 1 bit ko count karty hy or 0 bit ko ignore karty hy essi tarha hum Wildcard mask my 0 bit ko count karty hy or 1 bit ko ignore karty hy. Wildcard mask my 0 bits check hoty hy or 1 bit ignores hoty hy.
Class A ka Subnet Mask So Class A ka Wildcard Mask banny ga 0. Class B Subnet Mask Subnet CIDR: Wo kessy? Define Class A: Define Class B: Define Class C: So is tarha IANA ny Classes ko Divide kia or new network milta raha to jaha sy wo new network start ho raha tha us k last digit hamari phly class ka ending digit ban gaya like Class A is 0 to or loopback number hota hy jabhi hum essy IP my use nahi karty or jo k Class B ki IP my ja k lag gaya Simple.
To Jab tak ap apny local network k indar hi communication kar rahy to tab to hum private Ip ko hi use kar sakty hy qk wo internally communication k ley use ho rahi hy per jab hum internally communication sy nikal kar Externally communication matlab out of the office kessi or branch sy ya kessi or Network ya internet ko access karna chahy gy to waha hammy public IP ki required hogi jo hammy online connectivity provide kary gi on internet sy connect karygi.
Loopback Number Loop back 1 Virtual IP address hoti hy jo k ping ki request ka rply karti hy or Loop Back IPs hamesha active rehti hy kabhi down state my nahi jati. IPv4 my Loop back IP hy Define Subnetting: FLSM Fixed Length Subnet Mask Subnetting eak essa way hai jis mai hum eak large network ko smaller different networks mai apni requirement k according divide karty hai like eak hi Class ki IPs ko use karty howy ussy multiple network my divide karny ko subnetting khty hy. How to Subnet? Subnetting karny sy phly kuch basics bhut important hy jaisy k Class A my 1 Network bit hota hy or 3 Host bit hoty hy.
To agar my un 8 bit ki power lyta hu to mujy value milti hy Right. But subnetting my hamary subnet mask change hoty hy.
Or is ko yad karny ka asan tarika hy k hum bits ki power phly calculate kar k yad kar ly k agar itny bit. First Remind Powers of 2: Now Borrow Bits and calculate value:. Uses of Subnetting: Subnetting of Class C: Requeird Host 40 each Network: Subnetting Class: So phly hamy H ki Value nikalni parti hy yani Host bit k kis power ko ly k hum apni requirement pori kar sakty hy.
Class C my mujhy Host bits mil rahy thy 8 to mai un bits ko minus kardu ga apni H ki value sy jo meri required host hy so 8 - 6 its equals to 2 to mera N yani Network bits 2 nikla ye 2 bits hum network portion my add karata hy. D 4 subnetwork Network provide kary gi jis mai eak hi Class ki IP ko use karty howy 4 diffrenet offices mai different network ki IPs ko assign kar saku ga. Calculate Host Block Size: Calculate Range Network I. D mil jaye gi like Subnet Mask is: SO That is all about CIDR Mask essy yaad karny sy hammy bhut faida hota hai qk agar kahi hammy subnet mask ye show hota hai like this Subnetting VLSM:.
Define VLSM: VLSM Variable Length Subnet Mask subnetting ki second type hy jis my hum apni requirement k according subnetwork k size ko divide kar sakty hy suppose hamary offices ki 4 branches hy or hammy un branches my different network ki IPs assign karni hy or jitney host us branch my hy us sy bs kuch IP zada rakhni hy taky agar bad my kuch user add ho tu un ko bhi fulfill kar saky or zada IPs waste na ho saky. Iska formula bhi simple hy bus hammy jitney host chayee hoty hum hum host portion k utny bits ko 0 sy 1 kar k un ki powers ko count kar lyty hy.
VLSM for 4 Branches: IP Address: First Branch Host required: Open subnet in Octat: Second Branch 60 Host required: Third Branch 30 Host required: Forth Branch 10 Host required: VLSM bhut hi simple hai hammy just apni host requirement k according bits borrow karny hoty host portion sy or unki vlaue ko calculate kar k network IDs create karni hoti hai.
Router Topics: Router 1 essy specialize computer ko bolla jata jo different networks ko apas my connect karwata hy. Router 1 essi device hy jo multiples different network ko apas my connect karta hy taky wo appas my Communicate kar saky. Router my 1 operating system install hota hy jessy hum IOS khty hy jis sy router operate hota hy or routing wagera perform karta hy data ko 1 jaga sy dosri jaga move karta hy an all that.
Router Routing karny k ley switch ki tarha 1 table create karta hy jessy Routing Table kehty hy or is routing table ki help sy wo 1 jaga sy dosri jaga data send karta hy diffrenet networks mai.
Router OSI ki layer 3 Network layer py kam karta hy jessy hamary repeater or cables layer 1 py kam karty hy Switches layer 2 py kam karty hy essi tarha router layer 3 network layer py kam karta hy.
Router bhut sary functions perform karta hy per is ka main function kessi dosry network k sath communicate karwana hy. Or essi tarha router ka dosra main function hy k ye broadcast traffic ko rokta hy bhut sari companies router banati hy jessy k Junipher, 3COM, HP, Nortel or Cisco or is k elawa bhi bhut c companies router banati hy per most popular Cisco router hy jo common Enterprise network k ley worldwide use kiyee jaty hy. Broadcast 1 essi transmission hy jis ka message network py sary PCs 1 sath receive karty hy yani 1 to all communication.
Lan my broadcast msg bhut hi common hoty hy or ye broadcast transmission physical layer, data link layer, or network layer my use ki jati hy. Eak network sy kessi network tk ya data ko kessi dosri jaga send karny k ley hum default Gateway use karty hy. Agar hamry sary PC LAN sy connect hy or wo aapas my communicate kar rahy hy to jab hamy default gateway ki zarorat nahi hy qk wo sari pc 1 hi switch k sath lan sy connect hy per agar hamy internet py rakhy kessi server ya computer ko use karna hy matlab agar hamy LAN sy nikal k WAN py jana hy tu waha hamy 1 gate ki zarorat hogi jaha sy hamari request bahar ja saky or request ka response ander bhi aa saky to is k ley hum router ko as a Gateway bhi use karty hy.
Router 1 network sy dosray network tak jany k ley best route search karta hy or pher help karta hy k data router sy dosry router tak 1 achy rasty sy travel ho k waha tak pouch saky.
The description of Cisco CCNA
Router k bhut sary interfaces hoty hy jessy k Ethernet interface, Serial interface, Router best path apny route table ko use kar k search karta hy or data ko uski destination per move karta hy jo k us k ley best path hai. Router apny her interface py dosray router ko learn kartay hy taky ussy 1 road mil saky jis sy data ko uski destination location per send kia ja saky jessy Commonly hum essy neighbor router kehty hy k matlab us router k baraber my kon sa router hy or us k agye kitny routers lagye hy.
Routers route learns karny k ley 3 proccess ka use karty which mention below. Is process my router ye detkhta hy k kon sa Router is Router k sath directly connected hy throw the wire or usko apny Routing table my save kar lyta hy. Is process my Router khud sy koi Route learn nahi karty balky network administrator manually Networks or Routers ko apny Router my save karta hy taky dono Routers ko aapas my connect kar saky.
Is process my network administrator Router my sirf Routing Protocol ko enable karty hy or sary Router is protocol k throw hi dosray Routers k addresses ko auto learn kar lyty hy. Distance Vector Routing protocol my Router apna pora Routing Table pori topology my exchange karty hy her 30 second k bad. Link State Routing Protocol my router apna pora Routing Table exchange nahi karty sirf Router my hoi Changes ya updates ko send karty hy.
Benefit ye hota hy k is Process mai kam bandwidth utilize hoti hy. D hota hy 90 or is ka protocol number hy Neighbor Table my Router khud sy directly connected router ki information ko save karta hy k us k baraber my kon sa Router laga hy or us tak janny ki kia information hy ya kia rasta or kia address hy ye sari chezzy. Or ye message her 5 second k bad auto send hoty hy but is timer ko hum change bhi kar sakty hai.
Topology table my Routers apny pory network diagram rakhta hy or us my sary router ki information hoti hy or pori topology information bhi save hoti hy. Show ip eigrp Topology.
Routing Table my sary Routers ki information hoti hy or Best Path bhi routing table my hota hy. Router table ko hum router ka brain khty hy qk router wahi sy sary decision lyta hy or sary networks ki information bhi router k routing table mai save hoti hai. Show ip Route. Query message jab best path down hojata hy to Router 2nd best path ko up kar dyta hy but pher Router second best path ko search karny k ley sary routers ko query message send karta hy or wo dosry router sy best route ki information k bary my pata karta hy.
Query message is like Asking something. ACK message my router ko jab Update message mil jta hy to router ACK message send karty hy k unhy update packets mil gaye hy. Kessi bhi 1 Router sy dosry Router tak data ko pouchny my jo time lagta hy ussy Delay Time khty hy.
Or Successor Route ki information Routing Table my hoti hy qk wo best path hota hy. Or us ki information Topology table my hoti hy Qk wo 2nd best path hota hy. Routers how Calculate Second best path? Ye samajhny sy phly hum ye samajhty hy k Feasible Distance or Advertise Distance kia hota hy. EIGRP 5 chezzo ko use karta hy apni Matricalculation k ley jis sy wo best path wagera ki selection karta hy. That is Book Formula: Easy Formula to Calculate Matricalculation: S number assign karty hy jo k us network ki boundary hoti hy ya u samajh ly k us network ki identity hoti hy.
S number Purchase karna parta hy to ussy hum Public A. S khty hy. Or is ki range 1 to tak hoti hy or hum 1 A. S my Maximum Router laga sakty hy. MD5 password ko encrypt kar k Hash value my change kardyta hai or hash value encrypted hoti hy or jab ye hash value dosry Router k password or hash value sy match hoti hy jabhi data flow hota hy warna nahi.
Cammands of Authentication Key-Chain: R1 config ip authentication mode eigrp md5 R1 config ip authentication key-chain eigrp Key Name. Study CareFully…. Understanding Unequal load Balancing:D hota hy 90 or is ka protocol number hy Class C my mujhy Host bits mil rahy thy 8 to mai un bits ko minus kardu ga apni H ki value sy jo meri required host hy so 8 - 6 its equals to 2 to mera N yani Network bits 2 nikla ye 2 bits hum network portion my add karata hy.
Essy hum yu bhi samajh sakty hy k jb hum internet sy koi file download py lagaty hy to waha hamy 1 time dekhta hy k file 5 mint my download hojaye gi to ye bhi session layer my hi perform hota hy k 5 minute tak hamara session connect rahy ga us server sy jaha sy ap us file ko download kar rarhy hoty hy. In this book the basics of networking are given with various examples. Further ahead with ccna security nd ccnp.
As for ccna, i'll be going through chris bryant's boot camp and this thursday and friday i'll be going to an in office boot camp with a coworker through a current business prospect who is actually teaching it. Cisco ccna exam questions and answers. Benefit of Named ACL: Preparing to pass the ccna exam and earn this important cisco certification. It is very similar to what your labs on the ccna will look like.