GARDEN CITIES OF TOMORROW PDF
Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Ebenezer Howard: ”Tomorrow: A Peaceful. Path to Real Reform” (). Organizational / financial principles: • Garden City companies were established by help. PDF | The garden city is often presented as a low-density, unsustainable and solutions for today and tomorrow, to incorporate and de-.
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Garden cities of to-morrow by Ebenezer Howard, S. Sonnenschein & co., ltd. edition. Garden Cities of Tomorrow - Ebenezer Howard - Free download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read online for free. A classic book about urbanism, edited. Kevin Lynch: The Garden Cities of 97): The Image of the City Tomorrow () Architecture of the () City Linkwithin. the 'bounded' city. can be traced back.
The book gave rise to the garden city movement and is very important in the field of urban design  . This book offered a vision of towns free of slums and enjoying the benefits of both town such as opportunity, amusement and high wages and country such as beauty, fresh air and low rents. Howard illustrated the idea with his "Three Magnets" diagram.
Two English towns were built as garden cities, Letchworth and Welwyn. Though they did not completely measure up to the ideal , they provided a model for controlling urban sprawl. Howard's "Three Magnets" diagram which addressed the question "Where will the people go? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Garden Cities of To-morrow Title page of second edition.
Diagram No. Retrieved Introduction to Garden Cities of Tomorrow. Visited October 20, Garden Cities of To-morrow. Walking still toward the outskirts of the town, we come upon Grand Avenue. This avenue is fully entitled to the name it bears, for it is feet wide, 4 and, forming a belt of green upwards of three miles long, divides that part of the town which lies outside Central Park into two belts.
It really constitutes an additional park of acres a park which is within yards of the furthest removed inhabitant. In this splendid. We observe that the houses fronting on Grand Avenue have departed at least in one of the wards that of which Diagram 3 is a representation from the general plan of concentric rings, and, in order to ensure a longer line of frontage on Grand Avenue, are arranged in crescents thus also to the eye yet further enlarging the already splendid width of Grand Avenue.
On the outer ring of the town are factories, warehouses, dairies, markets, coal yards, timber yards, etc. This arrangement enables goods to be loaded direct into trucks from the warehouses and workshops, and so sent by railway to distant markets, or to be taken direct from the trucks into the warehouses or factories; thus not only effecting a very great saving in regard to packing and cartage, and reducing to a minimum loss from breakage, but also, by reducing the traffic on the roads of the town, lessening to a very marked extent the cost of their maintenance.
The smoke fiend is kept well within bounds in Garden City; for all machinery is driven by electric energy, with the result that the cost of electricity for lighting and other purposes is greatly reduced. The refuse of the town is utilized on the agricultural portions of the estate, which are held by various individuals in large farms, small holdings, allotments, cow pastures, etc. Thus it is easily conceivable that it may prove advantageous to grow wheat in very large fields, involving united action under a capitalist farmer, or by a body of co-operators; while the cultivation of vegetables, fruits, and flowers, which requires closer and more personal care, and more of the artistic and inventive faculty, may possibly be best dealt with by individuals, or by small groups of individuals having a common belief in the efficacy and value of certain dressings, methods of culture, or artificial and natural surroundings.
This plan, or, if the reader be pleased to so term it, this absence of plan, avoids the dangers of stagnation or dead level, and, though. While the town proper, with its population engaged in various trades, callings, and professions, and with a store or depot in each ward, offers the most natural market to the people engaged on the agricultural estate, inasmuch as to the extent to which the townspeople demand their produce they escape altogether any railway rates and charges; yet the farmers and others are not by any means limited to the town as their only market, but have the fullest right to dispose of their produce to whomsoever they please.
Here, as in every feature of the experiment, it will be seen that it is not the area of rights which is contracted, but the area of choice which is enlarged. This principle of freedom holds good with regard to manufacturers and others who have established themselves in the town.
These manage their affairs in their own way, subject, of course, to the general law of the land, and subject to the provision of sufficient space for workmen and reasonable sanitary conditions. Even in regard to such matters as water, lighting, and telephonic communication which a municipality, if efficient and honest, is certainly the best and most natural body to supply no rigid or absolute monopoly is sought; and if any private corporation or any body of individuals proved itself capable of supplying on more advantageous terms, either the whole town or a section of it, with these or any commodities the supply of which was taken up by the corporation, this would be allowed.
No really sound system of action is in more need of artificial support than is any sound system of thought. The area of municipal and corporate action is probably destined to become greatly enlarged; but, if it is to be so, it will be because the people possess faith in such action, and that faith can be best shown by a wide extension of the area of freedom. Dotted about the estate are seen various charitable and philanthropic institutions. These are not under the control of the municipality, but are supported and managed by various public-spirited people who have been invited by the municipality to establish these institutions in an open healthy district, and on land let to them at a pepper-corn rent, it occurring to the authorities that they can the better afford to be thus generous, as the spending power of these institutions greatly benefits the whole community.
Besides, as those persons who migrate to the town are among its most energetic and resourceful members, it is but just and. This was the average price paid for agricultural land in ; and, though this estimate may prove far more than sufficient, it is hardly likely to be much exceeded.
Garden cities of to-morrow
The financial arrangements described in this book are likely to be departed from in form, but not in essential principle. And until a definite scheme has been agreed upon, I think it better to repeat them precisely as they appeared in To-morrow, the original title of this book the book which led to the formation of the Garden City Association. This word, municipality, is not used in a technical sense. Portland Place, London, is only feet wide. It is my object to put forward a theoretical outline of a community so circumstanced and so maintained by the exercise of its own free will, guided by scientific knowledge, that the perfection of sanitary results will be approached, if not actually realized, in the coexistence of the lowest possible general mortality with the highest possible individual longevity.
When drainage everywhere, with its double functions, restoring what it takes away, is accomplished, then, this being combined with the data of a new social economy, the products of the earth will be increased tenfold, and the problem of misery will be wonderfully diminished.
Add the suppression of parasitism and it will be solved. Amongst the essential differences between Garden City and other municipalities, one of the chief is its method of raising its revenue. Perhaps no difference between town and country is more noticeable than the difference in the rent charged for the use of the soil. Thus, while in some parts of London the rent is equal to 30, an acre, 4 an acre is an extremely high rent for agricultural land.
This enormous difference of rental value is, of course, almost entirely due to the presence in the one case and the absence in the other of a large population; and, as it cannot be attributed to the action of any particular individuals, it is frequently spoken of as the unearned increment, i.
The presence of a considerable population thus giving a greatly additional value to the soil, it is obvious that a migration of population on any considerable scale to any particular area will be certainly attended with a corresponding rise in the value of the land so settled upon, and it is also obvious that such increment of value may, with some foresight and pre-arrangement, become the property of the migrating people.
Such foresight and pre-arrangement, never before exercised in an effective manner, are displayed conspicuously in the case of Garden City, where the land, as we have seen, is vested in trustees, who hold it in trust after payment of the debentures for the whole community, so that the entire increment of value gradually created becomes the property of the municipality, with the effect that though rents may rise, and even rise considerably, such rise in rent will not become the property of private individuals, but will be applied in relief of rates.
It is this arrangement which will be seen to give Garden City much of its magnetic power. The site of Garden City we have taken to be worth at the time of its purchase 40 an acre, or , The purchase money may be assumed to represent thirty years purchase, and on this basis the annual rent paid by the former tenants was 8, If, therefore, there was a population of 1, persons upon the estate at the time of the purchase, then each man, woman, and child was contributing towards this rent-roll.
But the population of Garden City, including its agricultural land, is, when completed, 32,, and the estate has cost them a sum on which they pay an annual charge by way of interest of 9, Thus, while before the experiment was initiated, 1, persons out of their united earnings contributed 8, a year, or 8 a head, on the completion of the town 32, persons out of their united earnings will contribute 9, a year, or an average of 6s.
This sum of 6s. Let us now suppose that each person, besides contributing annually 6s. In that case two things may be noticed. First, each person will be paying for ground rent and rates only one-fourth of the sum which each person before the purchase paid in ground rent alone; and, secondly, the Board of Management, after the payment of interest on the debentures, will receive an annual sum of 54,, which, as will be presently shown, would, after providing a sinking fund of 4, , defray all those costs, charges, and expenses which are usually met by local taxation.
The average annual sum contributed by each man, woman, and child in England and Wales for local purposes is about 2 a head, and the average sum contributed for ground rent is, at a very low estimate, about 2 10s. The average yearly contribution for ground rent and local rates is, therefore, about 4 10s. It might, therefore, be safely assumed that the people of Garden City would willingly pay 2 per head in complete discharge of ground rent and local rates; but to make the case the clearer and stronger, we will test the supposed willingness of the tenants of Garden City to pay such a sum as 2 a year for rates and rents in another way.
For this purpose, let us deal first with the agricultural estate, leaving the town estate to be dealt with separately. Obviously the rent which can be secured will be considerably greater than before the town was built. Every farmer now has a market close to his doors. There are 30, townspeople to be fed. Those persons, of course, are perfectly free to get their foodstuffs from any part of the world, and in the case of many products will doubtless continue to be supplied from abroad.
These farmers are hardly likely to supply them with tea, with coffee, with spices, with tropical fruits or with sugar, 1 and their struggle to compete with America and Russia for the supply of wheat or flour to the town may be.
But surely the struggle will not be so despairing. A ray a beam of hope will gladden the heart of the despairing home-producer of wheat, for while the American has to pay railway charges to the seaboard, charges for Atlantic transit and railway charges to the consumer, the farmer of Garden City has a market at his very doors, and this a market which the rent he contributes will help to build up.
Farmers, except near towns, do not often grow them now. Chiefly because of the difficulty and uncertainty of a market, and the high charges for freights and commission. To quote the words of Dr. Farquharson, M. A curious calculation may be interesting with regard to milk. Assuming each person in the town consumed only one-third of a pint a day, then 30, would consume 1, gallons a day, and might thus save, taking railway charges at a penny per gallon, upwards of 1, per annum in railway rates upon the one item of milk, a saving which must be multiplied by a large figure in order to realize the general saving to be effected by placing consumer and producer in such close association.
In other words, the combination of town and country is not only healthful, but economic a point which every step taken will serve to make yet more clear. But the rents which the agricultural tenants of Garden City would be willing to pay would increase for another reason. The waste products of the town could, and this without heavy charges for railway transport or other expensive agencies, be readily brought back to the soil, thus increasing its fertility.
The question of sewage disposal is naturally a difficult one to deal with, but its inherent difficulty is often much increased by artificial and imperfect conditions already in existence. Thus, Sir Benjamin Baker, in his joint report with Mr. In approaching the consideration of the vast question of the whole sewerage system of the Metropolis, and the state of the Thames, as a practical problem. But on Garden City site, given the skilful engineer, he would have comparatively little. He would have, as it were, a clean sheet on which to prepare his plans, and the whole estate being equally the property of the municipality, he would have a free course before him, and would doubtless succeed in adding greatly to the productiveness of the agricultural estate.
The great increase in the number of allotments, especially such favourably situated allotments as are shown in Diagram 2, would also tend to raise the total sum offered in rent. There are yet other reasons why the rent which a farmer on the Garden City estate would be willing to pay for his farm, or a labourer for his allotment, would tend to increase.
The productiveness of the agricultural part of the estate, besides being increased by a well-devised system of sewage disposal, and by a new and somewhat extensive market, with unique conveniences for transit to more distant markets, would also be increased because the tenure on which the land is held encourages maximum cultivation. It is a just tenure. The agricultural portion of the estate is let at fair rents, with a right to continue in occupation as long as the tenant is willing to pay a rent equal to that offered by any would-be occupier, less, say, 10 per cent in favour of the occupying tenant the incoming tenant having also to compensate the outgoing tenant for all unexhausted improvements.
Under this system, while it would be impossible for the tenant to secure to himself any undue share of that natural increment of land-value which would be brought about by the general growth in well-being of the town, he would yet have, as all tenants in possession probably should have, a preference over any newcomer, and would know that he would not lose those fruits of his past industry which were not yet in-gathered but were still adding their value to the soil.
Surely no one can doubt that such a tenure would, of itself, tend greatly to increase at once the activity and industry of the tenant, the productivity of the soil, and the rent which the tenant would be willing to pay. That there would be this increased offer of rent will become yet more obvious if we consider for a moment the nature of the rent paid by a tenant of Garden City.
Part of what he pays would be in respect of interest on the debentures on which the money to purchase the estate was raised, or in the redemption of those debentures, and would thus, except so far as the debentures were held by residents on the estate, pass away from the community altogether; but the whole of the remaining sum paid would be expended locally, and the farmer would have a share equal to that of every adult in the administration of such money.
The term rent,. That part of the rent which represents interest on debentures will be hereafter called landlords rent; that part which represents repayment of purchase-money sinking fund; that part which is devoted to public purposes rates; while the total sum will be termed rate-rent.
From these considerations, surely it is obvious that the rate-rent which the farmer will be willing to pay into the treasury of Garden City will be considerably higher than the rent he would be willing to pay to a private landlord, who, besides increasing his rent as the farmer makes his land more valuable, will also leave him with the full burden of local taxation resting upon him. In short the plan proposed embraces a system of sewage-disposal which will return to the soil in a transmuted form many of those products the growth of which, by exhausting its natural fertility, demand elsewhere the application of manures so expensive that the farmer becomes sometimes blinded to their necessity, and it also embraces a system of rate-rents by which many of the farmers hardearned sovereigns, hitherto lost to him by being paid away to his landlord, shall return to his exhausted exchequer, not indeed in the form in which they left it, but in a variety of useful forms, such as roads, schools, markets, which will assist him most materially, though indirectly, in his work, but which, under present conditions, entail so severe a burden as to make him naturally slow to see their inherent necessity, and even to look upon some of them with suspicion and dislike.
Who can doubt that if the farm and the farmer can be placed under conditions so healthful and natural alike in a physical and moral sense, the willing soil and the hopeful farmer will alike respond to their new environment the soil becoming more fertile by every blade of grass it yields, the farmer richer by every penny of rate-rent he contributes? We are now in a position to see that the rate-rent which will be readily paid by farmer, small occupier, and allotment holder, would be considerably greater than the rent he paid before: But certain as it is that the rate-rent would represent a very considerable increase over the bare rent formerly paid by the tenants on.
If, then, in view of all the circumstances, we estimate that the farming population of Garden City will be prepared to pay for rates and rent 50 per cent more than they before paid for rent alone, we shall reach the following result: Estimated Gross Revenue from Agricultural Estate Original rent paid by tenants of 5, acres, say 6, Add 50 per cent for contributions to rates and sinking fund 3, Total rate-rent from agricultural estate 9, We shall in the next chapter estimate the amount which may, on the most reasonable calculation, be expected from the town estate, and then proceed to consider the sufficiency of the total rate-rents for the municipal needs of the town.
The electric light, with cheap motive power for its generation, with glass-houses, may make even some of these things possible. A remedy for the overcrowding of London will still be wanted. There are large classes of the population of London whose removal into the country would be in the long run economically advantageous; it would benefit alike those who moved and those who remained behind. Of the , or more hired workers in the.
Having in the last chapter estimated the gross revenue which may be anticipated from the agricultural part of the estate at 9,, we will now turn to the town estate where, obviously, the conversion of an agricultural area into a town will be attended with a very large rise in land values , and endeavour roughly to estimate again taking care to keep well within the mark the amount of rate-rent which will be freely offered by the tenants of the town estate.
The site of the town proper consists, it will be remembered, of 1, acres, and is assumed to have cost 40,, the interest of which, at 4 per cent, is 1, per annum. This sum of 1, is, therefore, all the landlords rent which the people of the town. It will be interesting, therefore, to see what sort of a burden landlords rent will represent per head, and what the community would secure by such contribution.
Now, if the sum of 1,, being the annual interest or landlords rent, be divided by 30, the supposed population of the town , it will be found to equal an annual contribution by each man, woman, and child of rather less than 1s. This is all the landlords rent which will ever be levied, any additional sum collected as rate-rent being applied to sinking-fund or to local purposes. And now let us notice what this fortunately placed community obtains for this insignificant sum.
It obtains for 1s. It obtains ample space for roads, some of which are of truly magnificent proportions, so wide and spacious that sunlight and air may freely circulate, and in which trees, shrubs, and grass give to the town a semi-rural appearance.
It also obtains ample sites for town hall, public library, museum and picture gallery, theatre, concert hall, hospital, schools, churches, swimming baths, public markets, etc. It also secures a central park of acres, and a magnificent avenue feet wide, extending in a circle of over three miles, unbroken save by spacious.
It secures also all the land required for a railway 41 miles long, encompassing the town; 82 acres for warehouses, factories, markets, and a splendid site for a Crystal Palace devoted to shopping, and serving also as a winter garden. The leases under which all building sites are let do not, therefore, contain the usual covenant by the tenant to pay all rates, taxes, and assessments levied in respect of such property, but, on the contrary, contain a covenant by the landlord to apply the whole sum received, first, in payment of debenture interest; secondly, towards the redemption of the debentures; and thirdly, as to the whole of the balance, into a public fund, to be applied to public purposes, among these being the rates levied by public authorities, other than the municipal authority, of the city.
Let us now attempt to estimate the rate-rents which may be anticipated in respect of our town-estate. First, we will deal with the home-building lots. All are excellently situated, but those fronting Grand Avenue feet and 67 the magnificent boulevards feet would probably call forth the highest tenders.
We can here deal only with averages, but we think anyone would admit that an average rate-rent of 6s. This would make the rate-rent of a building lot 20 feet wide in an average position 6 a year, and on this basis the 5, building lots would yield a gross revenue of 33, The rate-rents from the sites of factories, warehouses, markets, etc.
It is, of course, not suggested that the raterent levied should be a poll-tax; it would, as has been said, be raised by competition among the tenants; but this way of estimating rate-rent to be paid will perhaps give a ready means by which manufacturers or other employers, co-operative societies, or individuals working on their own account, would be able to judge whether they would be lightly rated and rented as compared with their present position.
It must be, however, distinctly borne in mind that we are dealing with averages; and if the figure should seem high to a large employer, it will seem ridiculously low to a small shopkeeper. Now, in a town with a population of 30,, there would be about twenty thousand persons between the ages of 16 and 65; and if it is assumed that 10, of these would be employed in factories, shops,.
The gross revenue of the entire estate would therefore be: Rate-rent from agricultural estate see p. Or 2 per head of population for rates and rent. This sum would be available as follows: For landlords rent or interest on purchase money , at 4 per cent For sinking fund thirty years For such purposes as are elsewhere defrayed out of rates 9, 4, 50, 64, It is now important to inquire whether 50, will suffice for the municipal needs of Garden City.
Before entering upon the question which presented itself at the conclusion of the last chapter that of endeavouring to ascertain whether the estimated net available income of Garden City 50, per annum would be sufficient for its municipal needs, I will very shortly state how it is proposed to raise the money required for commencing operations.
The money would be borrowed on B debentures, 1 and would be secured by a charge upon the rate-rent, subject, of course, to the payment of interest and sinking fund in respect of the A debentures on. It is, perhaps, superfluous to remark that, though in the case of the land purchase it might be requisite to raise the whole, or at least some very considerable part of the purchase money before possession would be given of the estate, or operations upon it commenced, yet in regard to public works to be carried out upon the estate, the case is quite different, and it would be by no means necessary or advisable to defer the commencement of operations until the whole sum which might be ultimately required should be raised.
Probably no town was ever built on such onerous conditions as would be involved in the raising at the outset of such a very considerable sum as would defray the cost of all its public works; and though the circumstances under which Garden City is to be built may be unique, there is, as will by and by be seen, not only no need for making an exception of the town in respect of initial capital, but quite exceptional reasons will become more and more apparent which make the overlaying of the enterprise with superabundant capital altogether unnecessary, and therefore inexpedient; although, of course, there must be a sufficient sum to enable all real economies to be readily effected.
Perhaps it may be well in this connection to draw a distinction as to the amount of capital required between the case of the building of a town and the building, let us say, of a large iron bridge across an estuary. In the case of the bridge it is highly expedient to raise the entire sum required before commencing operations, for the simple reason that the bridge is not a bridge until the last rivet is driven home, nor, until its entire completion and its connection with the railways or roadways at either end, has it any revenue-earning power.
Except, therefore, on the assumption that it is to be fully completed, it offers very little security for the capital sunk upon it. Hence it would be very natural for those who are asked to invest to say, We will not put any money into this enterprise until you show us that you can get enough to complete it.
But the money which it is proposed to raise for the development of Garden City site leads to speedy results. It is to be expended upon roads, schools, etc. These works will be carried out with due regard to the number of lots which have been let to tenants, who undertake to build as from a certain date; and, therefore, the money expended will very soon begin to yield a return in the shape of a rate-rent, representing, in reality, a greatly improved ground rent; when those who have advanced money on the B debentures will have a really first-class security, and further sums should be easily obtainable, and at a reduced rate of interest.
Again, it is an important part of the project that each ward, or one-sixth part of the city, 2 should be in. Work, too, would be practically completed in one ward before commencing on another, and the operations in the various wards would be taken up in due and proper sequence, so that those portions of the town site on which building operations were not in progress would also be a source of revenue, either as allotments, cow-pastures, or, perhaps, as brickfields.
Let us now deal with the subject immediately before us. Will the principles on which Garden City is to be built have any bearing on the effectiveness of its municipal expenditure? In other words, will a given revenue yield greater results than under ordinary conditions? These questions will be answered in the affirmative. It will be shown that, pound for pound, money will be more effectively spent than elsewhere, and that there will be many great and obvious economies which cannot be expressed in figures with much accuracy, but which would certainly represent in the aggregate a very large sum.
The first great economy to be noticed is that the item of landlords rent, which, under ordinary conditions, largely enters into municipal expenditure, will, in Garden City, scarcely enter at all. Thus, all wellordered towns require administrative buildings, schools, swimming baths, libraries, parks; and the sites which these and other corporate undertakings occupy are usually purchased.
In such cases the money necessary for the purchase of the sites is generally borrowed on the security of the rates; and thus it is that a very considerable part of the total rates levied by a municipality are ordinarily applied, not to productive works, but either to what we have termed landlords rent, in the shape of interest on money borrowed to effect the purchase, or to the provision of a sinking fund in payment of the purchase money of the land so acquired, which is landlords rent in a capitalized form.
Now, in Garden City, all such expenditure, with such exceptions as road sites on the agricultural estate, has been already provided for. Thus, the acres for public parks, the sites for schools and other public buildings, will cost the ratepayers nothing whatever, or, to put it more correctly, their cost, which was really 40 per acre, has been covered, as we have seen, by the annual average contribution of 1s.
In considering, therefore, the question whether 50, is a sufficient revenue, it must be remembered that in no case has any cost of municipal sites to be first deducted from that amount. Another item in which a great economy will be effected will be found in a comparison between Garden City and any old city like London. London wishes to breathe a fuller municipal spirit, and so proceeds to construct schools, to pull down slums, to erect libraries, swimming baths, etc.
In these cases, it has not only to purchase the freeholds of the sites, but also has usually to pay for the buildings which had been previously erected thereon, and which are purchased solely, of course, with a view to their demolition and to a clearing of the ground, and frequently it has also to meet claims for business-disturbance, together with heavy legal expenses in settling claims. In this connection it may be remarked that the inclusive cost of sites of schools purchased by the London School Board since its constitution, i.
Oh, but, it may be said, the school sites of Garden City are extravagantly large, and would be out of the question in London, and it is altogether unfair to compare a small town like Garden City with London, the wealthy capital of a mighty Empire.
I would reply, It is quite true that the cost of land in London would make such sites extravagant, not to say prohibitive they would cost about 40,, sterling but does not this of itself suggest a most serious defect of system, and that at a most vital part? Can children be better taught where land costs 9, an acre than where it costs 40? Whatever may be the real economic value of the London site, for other purposes as to which we may have something to say at a later stage for school purposes, wherein lies the advantage that the sites on which its schools are built are frequently surrounded by dingy factories or crowded courts and alleys?
If Lombard Street is an ideal place for banks, is not a park like the Central Avenue of Garden City an ideal place for schools? But, it may be said, the children must be educated near their homes,. Precisely; but does not the scheme provide for this in the most effective manner, and in that respect also are not the school sites of Garden City superior to those of London?
The children will have to expend less than an average amount of energy in going to school, a matter, as all educationists admit, of immense importance, especially in the winter. But further, have we not heard from Professor Marshall see heading to Chapter Three that , people, in London, engaged in the clothesmaking trades, are doing work which it is against all economic reason to have done where ground rent is high in other words, that these , people should not be in London at all; and does not the consideration that the education of the children of such workers is carried on at once under inferior conditions and at enormous cost add weight and significance to the Professors words?
If these workers ought not to be in London, then their homes, for which, insanitary as they are, they pay heavy rents, ought not to be in London; a certain proportion of the shopkeepers who supply their wants should not be in London; and various other people to whom the wages earned by these persons in the clothes-making trade give employment should not be in London.
Garden cities of to-morrow
Hence, there is a sense and a very real one in which it is fair to compare the cost of school sites in Garden City with the cost of school sites in London; because obviously if these people do, as suggested by Professor Marshall, migrate from London, they can at once effect if they make, as I have suggested, proper provision beforehand not only a great saving in respect of ground rent for their workshops, but also a vast saving in respect of sites for homes, schools, and other purposes; and this saving is obviously the difference between what is now paid and what would be paid under the new conditions, minus the loss incurred if any , and plus the numerous gains secured as the result of such removal.
Let us for the sake of clearness make the comparison in another way. The people of London have paid a capital sum representing, when spread over the whole population of London this being taken at 6,, , upwards of 11s. The population of Garden City, 30, in number, have entirely saved that 11s. And besides thus saving a year as interest on cost of sites for schools, Garden City has secured sites for its schools incomparably better than those of London schools sites which afford ample.
The sites of the London School Board are acres in extent, or about 1 acre to every 16, of the population, while the people of Garden City have obtained 24 acres or 1 acre for every 1, In other words, Garden City secures sites which are larger, better placed, and in every way more suitable for educational purposes, at a mere fraction of the cost which in London is incurred for sites vastly inferior in every respect.
The economies with which we have thus dealt are, it will be seen, effected by the two simple expedients we have referred to. First, by buying the land before a new value is given to it by migration, the migrating people obtain a site at an extremely low figure, and secure the coming increment for themselves and those who come after them; and secondly, by coming to a new site, they do not have to pay large sums for old buildings, for compensation for disturbance, and for heavy legal charges.
The practicability of securing for the poor workers of London the first of these great advantages appears to have been for the moment overlooked by Professor Marshall in his article in the Contemporary Review, 5 for the Professor remarks Ultimately all would gain by the migration, but most the italics are my own the landowners and the railroads connected with the colony.
Let us then adopt the expedient here advocated of securing that the landowners, who. As to the benefit to be derived by the railways, while no doubt the building up of the town would specially benefit the main line of railway which passed through the estate, it is also true that the earnings of the people would not be diminished to the usual extent by railway freights and charges.
See Chapter Two, also Chapter Five, p. We now come to deal with an element of economy which will be simply incalculable. This is to be found in the fact that the town is definitely planned, so that the whole question of municipal administration may be dealt with by one far-reaching scheme.
It is not by any means necessary, and it is not, humanly speaking, possible, that the final scheme should be the work of one mind.
It will no doubt be the work of many minds the minds of engineers, of architects and surveyors, of landscape gardeners and electricians. But it is essential, as we have said,.
A town, like a flower, or a tree, or an animal, should, at each stage of its growth, possess unity, symmetry, completeness, and the effect of growth should never be to destroy that unity, but to give it greater purpose, nor to mar that symmetry, but to make it more symmetrical; while the completeness of the early structure should be merged in the yet greater completeness of the later development.
This element of economy will be perhaps best dealt with by a concrete illustration, and one of a very striking nature at once presents itself. In London the question of building a new street between Holborn and the Strand has been for many years under consideration, and at length a scheme is being carried out, imposing an enormous cost on the people of London.
Every such change in the street geography of London displaces thousands of the poor I quote from the Daily Chronicle of 6th July and for many years all public or quasi-public schemes have been charged with the liability to rehouse as many of them as possible.
This is as it should be; but the difficulty begins when the public is asked to face the music and pay the bill.
In the present case some three thousand souls of the working population have to be turned out. After some searching of heart, it is decided that most of them are so closely tied to the spot by their employment that it would be a hardship to send them more than a mile away. The result, in cash, is that London must spend in rehousing them about a head or , in all.
As to those who cannot fairly be asked to go even a mile away hangers-on to the market, or others tethered to the spot the cost will be even higher.
They will require to have parcels of the precious land cleared by the great scheme itself, and the result of that will be to house them at the handsome figure of apiece, or some 1, for every family of five or six.
Financial statements convey little to the ordinary mind. Let us make it a little more intelligible. A sum of 1, means, in the house market, a rental of nearly a year.
It would buy an excellent in fact a sumptuous, house and garden at Hampstead, such as the better middleclass delight in. It would purchase anywhere in the nearer suburbs such houses as men with 1, a year inhabit.
If one went further afield, to. But on what scale of comfort will the poor Covent Garden labourer with a wife and four children live? The 1, will by no means represent a fair standard of comfort, to say nothing of magnificence. He will live in three rooms sufficiently small in a block at least three storeys high.
Contrast this with what might be done on a new area, by carefully planning a bold scheme at the outset. Streets of greater width than this new street would be laid out and constructed at a mere fraction of the cost, while a sum of 1,, instead of providing one family with three rooms sufficiently small in blocks at least three storeys high, would provide seven families in Garden City with a comfortable six-roomed cottage each, and with a nice little garden; and, manufacturers being concurrently induced to build on the sites set apart for them, each breadwinner would be placed within easy walking distance of his work.
There is another modern need which all towns and cities should be designed to meet a need which has arisen with the evolution of modern sanitation, and which has of recent years been accentuated by the rapid growth of invention.
Subways for sewerage and surface drainage, for water, gas, telegraph and telephone wires, electric lighting wires, wires for conveying motive power, pneumatic tubes for postal purposes, have come to be regarded as economic if not essential.
But if they would be a source of economy in an old city, how much more so in new ones; for on a clean sheet it will be easy to use the very best appliances for their construction, and to avail ourselves to the fullest extent of the ever-growing advantages which they possess as the number of services which they accommodate increases.
Before the subways can be constructed, trenches somewhat wide and deep must be excavated. In making these the most approved excavating machinery could be employed.
In old towns this might be very objectionable, if not, indeed, quite impossible. But here, in Garden City, the steam navvy would not make its appearance in the parts where people were living, but where they were coming to live after its work in preparing the way had been completed.
What a grand thing it would be if the people of England could, by an actual illustration under their very eyes, be convinced that machinery can be so used as to confer not only an ultimate national benefit, but a direct and immediate advantage, and that not only upon those who actually own it or use it, but on others who are given work by its magic aid. What a happy day it would be for the people of this country, and of all countries, if they could learn, from practical experience, that machinery can be used on an extended scale to give.
Garden Cities of Tomorrow
There will be plenty of work to be done in Garden City. That is obvious. It is also obvious that, until a large number of houses and factories are built, many of these things cannot be done, and that the faster the trenches are dug, the subways finished, the factories and the houses built, and the light and the power turned on, the sooner can this town, the home of an industrious and a happy people, be built, and the sooner can others start the work of building other towns, not like it, but gradually becoming as much superior to it as our present locomotives are to the first crude attempts of the pioneers of mechanical traction.
We have now shown four cogent reasons why a given revenue should, in Garden City, yield vastly greater results than under ordinary conditions. There are other economies which will become apparent to the reader as he proceeds, but, having cleared the ground by discussing general principles, we shall be better prepared to discuss the question as to the sufficiency of our estimates in another chapter. It is a great pity that the old suggestion of attaching, wherever possible, half an acre or so of land to each public elementary school in the country has never been carried out.
School gardens might be made. The physiology and relative value of food is a much more useful branch of school instruction than many a branch upon which the young have wasted years of their time, and the school garden would be the most valuable of object lessons.
The Echo, Nov. No one is, of course, better aware of this possibility than the Professor himself. See Principles of Economics, 2nd ed. V, Chaps. X and XIII. It is commonly thought that the cities of the United States are planned. This is only true in a most inadequate sense. American towns certainly do not consist of intricate mazes of streets, the lines of which would appear to have been sketched out by cows: Certain streets are laid out, and as the city grows, these are extended and repeated in rarely broken monotony.
Washington is a magnificent exception as to the laying out of its streets; but even this city is not designed with a view of securing to its people ready access to nature, while its parks are not central, nor are its schools and other buildings arranged in a scientific manner. London has grown up in a chaotic manner, without any unity of design, and at the chance discretion of any persons who were fortunate enough to own land as it came into demand at successive periods for building operations.
Sometimes a great landlord laid out a quarter in a manner to tempt the better class of residents by squares, gardens, or retired streets, often cut off from through traffic by gates and bars; but even in these cases London as a whole has not been thought of, and no main arteries have been provided for.
In other and more frequent cases of small landowners, the only design of builders has been to crowd upon the land as many streets and houses as possible, regardless of anything around them, and without open spaces or wide approaches. A careful examination of a map of London shows how absolutely wanting in any kind of plan has been its growth, and how little the convenience and wants of the whole population or the considerations of dignity and beauty have been consulted.
Right Hon. Shaw-Lefevre, New Review, , p. In hollow voices from Workhouse, Hospital, and Jail, this truth is preached from day to day, and has been proclaimed for years. It is no light matter no outcry from the working vulgar no mere question of the peoples health and comforts that may be whistled down on Wednesday nights. In love of home, the love of country has its rise; and who are the truer patriots or the better in time of need those who venerate the land, owning its wood, and stream, and earth, and all that they produce, or those who love their country, boasting not a foot of ground in all its wide domain?
To make this chapter interesting to the general reader would be difficult, perhaps impossible; but if carefully studied, it will, I think, be found to abundantly establish one of the main propositions of this book that the rate-rent of a well-planned town, built on an agricultural estate, will amply suffice for the creation and maintenance of such municipal undertakings as are usually provided for out of rates compulsorily levied.
The net available revenue of Garden City, after payment of interest on debentures, and providing a sinking fund for the landed estate, has been already estimated at 50, per annum see Chapter Three, p. Having, in the fourth chapter, given special reasons why a given expenditure in Garden City would be unusually productive, I will now enter into fuller details, so that any criticism which this book may elicit, having something tangible to deal with, may be the more valuable in preparing the ground for an experiment such as is here advocated.
Expenses See Note A 25 miles roads city at 4, a mile , 2, 1, maintenance only. B 6 miles additional roads, country estate at 1, 7, C Circular railway and bridges, 51 miles at 3, 16, D Schools for 6, children, or one-fifth of the total population, at 12 per school place for capital account, and 3 maintenance, etc.
But these items of expenditure are almost invariably attended with considerable profits, which go in aid of rates. No calculation, therefore, need be made in respect of these. I will now deal separately with most of the items in the above estimate. A Roads and Streets The first point to be observed under this head is that the cost of.
It is usually paid by the building-owner before the local authorities will consent to take the road over as a free gift. It is obvious, therefore, that the greater part of the , might be struck out.
Experts will also not forget that the cost of the road sites is elsewhere provided for. In considering the question of the actual sufficiency of the estimate, they will also remember that of the boulevards one-half and of the streets and avenues one-third may be regarded as in the nature of park, and the cost of laying out and maintenance of these portions of the roads is dealt with under the head Parks.
They will also note that road-making materials would probably be found near at hand, and that, the railway relieving the streets of most of the heavy traffic, the more expensive methods of paving need not be resorted to.
The cost, 4, per mile, would, however, be doubtless inadequate if subways are constructed, as probably they ought to be. The following consideration, however, has led me not to estimate for these. Subways are, where useful, a source of economy.
The cost of maintaining roads is lessened, as the continual breaking-up for laying and repairing of water, gas, and electric mains is avoided, while any waste from leaky pipes is quickly detected, and thus the subways pay.
Their cost should, therefore, be debited rather to cost of water, gas, and electric supplies, and these services are almost invariably a source of revenue to the Company or Corporation which constructs them. B Country Roads These roads are only forty feet wide, and 1, a mile is ample.
The cost of sites has in this case to be defrayed out of estimate.
C Circular Railway and Bridges The cost of site is elsewhere provided for see p. The cost of maintenance does not, of course, include working expenses, locomotives, etc. To cover these a charge based on cost might be made to traders using the line. It should also be noticed that, as in the case of roads, by showing that the expense of this undertaking could be defrayed out of the raterent, I am proving more than I undertook to prove.
I am proving that the rate-rent is sufficient to provide for landlords rent, for such purposes as are usually defrayed out of rent, and also for greatly extending the area of municipal activity. It may here be well to point out that this circle railway not only will save the trader the expense of carting to and from his warehouse or factory, but will enable him to claim a rebate from the railway company. Section 4 of the Railway and Canal Tariff Act, , enacts: D Schools This estimate of 12 per school place represents what was only a few years ago the average cost per child of the London School Board for building, architect, and clerk of the works, and for furniture and fittings; and no one can doubt that buildings greatly superior to those in London could be obtained for this sum.
The saving in sites has been already dealt with, but it may be remarked that in London the cost per child for sites has been 6 11s.
As showing how ample this estimate is, it may be observed that the cost of schools which have been proposed to be built by a private company at Eastbourne, with a view of keeping out the School Board, is estimated at 2, for places, or but little more than half the sum per school place provided in the estimate for Garden City. The cost of maintenance, 3 per head, is probably sufficient, in view of the fact that the expenditure per scholar in actual average attendance in England and Wales, as given in the Report of the Committee of Council on Education, , c.
It must be especially noticed, too, that the whole cost of education is, in these estimates, assumed to be borne by Garden City, though a considerable part would be, in the ordinary course, borne by the National Exchequer. The amount of income per scholar in actual average attendance in England and Wales, as given in the same report, is 1 1s.
So that I am again, in the case of the schools, as in the case of roads and circle railway, proving more than I set out to prove. E Town Hall and Expenses of Management It is to be noticed that the estimates of the various undertakings are intended to cover professional direction and supervision of architects, engineers, teachers, etc. The 2, for maintenance and working expenses under this head is, therefore, intended to include only the salaries of town clerk and of officials other than those comprised under special heads, together with incidental expenses.
F Library, and G Museum The latter is usually and the former not infrequently elsewhere provided for out of funds other than rates. So, here again, I am more than proving my case. H Parks and Road Ornamentation This item of cost would not be incurred until the undertaking was in a thoroughly sound financial condition, and the park space for a considerable period might be a source of revenue as agricultural land.
Further, much of the park space would probably be left in a state of nature. Forty acres of this park space is road ornamentation, but the planting of trees and shrubs would not entail great expense. Again, a considerable part of the area would be reserved for cricket-fields, lawntennis courts, and other playgrounds, and the clubs using public grounds might perhaps be called upon to contribute to the expense of keeping these in order, as is customary elsewhere. K Interest The money to construct the public works with which we have been dealing is supposed to be borrowed at 44 per cent.
The question here arises a question partly dealt with in Chapter Four what is the security for those who lend money on the B debentures? My answer is threefold. That the scheme is in reality a 3 per cent security, and would in its later stages become so, I entertain little doubt; but I do not forget that, though its points of novelty are the very elements which really make it secure, they may not make it seem so, and that those who are merely looking out for an investment may eye it with some distrust because of its novelty.On the contrary, our so-called public markets are, for the most part, carried on by private individuals, who pay tolls for the parts of the buildings which they occupy, but who are not, except on a few points, controlled by the municipality, and whose profits are personally enjoyed by the various dealers.
Those persons, of course, are perfectly free to get their foodstuffs from any part of the world, and in the case of many products will doubtless continue to be supplied from abroad. In these cases, it has not only to purchase the freeholds of the sites, but also has usually to pay for the buildings which had been previously erected thereon, and which are purchased solely, of course, with a view to their demolition and to a clearing of the ground, and frequently it has also to meet claims for business-disturbance, together with heavy legal expenses in settling claims.
These are not under the control of the municipality, but are supported and managed by various public-spirited people who have been invited by the municipality to establish these institutions in an open healthy district, and on land let to them at a pepper-corn rent, it occurring to the authorities that they can the better afford to be thus generous, as the spending power of these institutions greatly benefits the whole community.
The smoke fiend is kept well within bounds in Garden City; for all machinery is driven by electric energy, with the result that the cost of electricity for lighting and other purposes is greatly reduced. Previously, people have featured, but in this new body of work human presence is merely implied, with a raft in the gallery akin to those that were launched on the nearby Whanganui River during annual races.