SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI URDU PDF
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Saladin's role in this expedition was minor, and it is known that he was ordered by Shirkuh to collect stores from Bilbais prior to its siege by a combined force of Crusaders and Shawar's troops. Saladin played a major role, commanding the right wing of the Zengid army, while a force of Kurds commanded the left, and Shirkuh was stationed in the center. Muslim sources at the time, however, put Saladin in the "baggage of the centre" with orders to lure the enemy into a trap by staging a feigned retreat.
The Crusader force enjoyed early success against Shirkuh's troops, but the terrain was too steep and sandy for their horses, and commander Hugh of Caesarea was captured while attacking Saladin's unit.
After scattered fighting in little valleys to the south of the main position, the Zengid central force returned to the offensive; Saladin joined in from the rear. Saladin and Shirkuh moved towards Alexandria where they were welcomed, given money, arms and provided a base. He and the bulk of his force withdrew from Alexandria, while Saladin was left with the task of guarding the city.
In , Shawar was reportedly assassinated by Saladin, and Shirkuh died later that year.
Ibn al-Athir claims that the caliph chose him after being told by his advisers that "there is no one weaker or younger" than Saladin, and "not one of the emirs [commanders] obeyed him or served him". However, according to this version, after some bargaining, he was eventually accepted by the majority of the emirs.
Al-Adid's advisers were also suspected of promoting Saladin in an attempt to split the Syria-based Zengids. Al-Wahrani wrote that Saladin was selected because of the reputation of his family in their "generosity and military prowess".
Imad ad-Din wrote that after the brief mourning period for Shirkuh, during which "opinions differed", the Zengid emirs decided upon Saladin and forced the caliph to "invest him as vizier". Although positions were complicated by rival Muslim leaders, the bulk of the Syrian commanders supported Saladin because of his role in the Egyptian expedition, in which he gained a record of military qualifications.
Later in the year, a group of Egyptian soldiers and emirs attempted to assassinate Saladin, but having already known of their intentions thanks to his intelligence chief Ali ibn Safyan, he had the chief conspirator, Naji, Mu'tamin al-Khilafa—the civilian controller of the Fatimid Palace—arrested and killed. The day after, 50, Black African soldiers from the regiments of the Fatimid army opposed to Saladin's rule, along with a number of Egyptian emirs and commoners, staged a revolt.
By 23 August, Saladin had decisively quelled the uprising, and never again had to face a military challenge from Cairo.
Afterward, in the spring of , Nur ad-Din sent Saladin's father to Egypt in compliance with Saladin's request, as well as encouragement from the Baghdad -based Abbasid caliph, al-Mustanjid , who aimed to pressure Saladin in deposing his rival caliph, al-Adid. He began granting his family members high-ranking positions in the region; he ordered the construction of a college for the Maliki branch of Sunni Islam in the city, as well as one for the Shafi'i denomination to which he belonged in al-Fustat.
He destroyed the town built outside the city's castle and killed most of its inhabitants after they were refused entry into the castle. It did not pose a threat to the passage of the Muslim navy, but could harass smaller parties of Muslim ships and Saladin decided to clear it from his path. Several Egyptian emirs were thus killed, but al-Adid was told that they were killed for rebelling against him.
He then fell ill, or was poisoned according to one account. While ill, he asked Saladin to pay him a visit to request that he take care of his young children, but Saladin refused, fearing treachery against the Abbasids, and is said to have regretted his action after realizing what al-Adid had wanted. Prior to arriving at Montreal, Saladin however withdrew back to Cairo as he received the reports that in his absence the Crusader leaders had increased their support to the traitors inside Egypt to attack Saladin from within and lessen his power especially the Fatimid who started plotting to restore their past glory.
Because of this, Nur ad-Din went on alone. The emir of the city had requested Saladin's assistance and was given reinforcements under Turan-Shah , Saladin's brother.
Consequently, the Nubians departed; but returned in and were again driven off. This time, Egyptian forces advanced from Aswan and captured the Nubian town of Ibrim. Saladin sent a gift to Nur ad-Din, who had been his friend and teacher, 60, dinars, "wonderful manufactured goods", some jewels, and an elephant.
While transporting these goods to Damascus, Saladin took the opportunity to ravage the Crusader countryside.
He did not press an attack against the desert castles, but attempted to drive out the Muslim Bedouins who lived in Crusader territory with the aim of depriving the Franks of guides. The Ayyubids held a council upon the revelation of these preparations to discuss the possible threat and Saladin collected his own troops outside Cairo. On 15 May, Nur ad-Din died after falling ill the previous week and his power was handed to his eleven-year-old son as-Salih Ismail al-Malik.
His death left Saladin with political independence and in a letter to as-Salih, he promised to "act as a sword" against his enemies and referred to the death of his father as an "earthquake shock". He could also take it upon himself to annex Syria before it could possibly fall into the hands of a rival, but he feared that attacking a land that formerly belonged to his master—forbidden in the Islamic principles in which he believed—could portray him as hypocritical, thus making him unsuitable for leading the war against the Crusaders.
Saladin saw that in order to acquire Syria, he either needed an invitation from as-Salih, or to warn him that potential anarchy could give rise to danger from the Crusaders. The emir prepared to unseat all his rivals in Syria and the Jazira, beginning with Damascus.
Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi Urdu
In this emergency, the emir of Damascus appealed to Saif al-Din of Mosul a cousin of Gumushtigin for assistance against Aleppo, but he refused, forcing the Syrians to request the aid of Saladin, who complied.
According to his own account, was joined by "emirs, soldiers, and Bedouins—the emotions of their hearts to be seen on their faces. His army conquered Hamah with relative ease, but avoided attacking Homs because of the strength of its citadel. One of Saladin's chroniclers claimed "the people came under his spell". One was killed by one of Saladin's generals and the others were slain while trying to escape. Saladin later moved toward Homs instead, but retreated after being told a relief force was being sent to the city by Saif al-Din.
Saladin aimed to counter this propaganda by ending the siege, claiming that he was defending Islam from the Crusaders; his army returned to Hama to engage a Crusader force there. The Crusaders withdrew beforehand and Saladin proclaimed it "a victory opening the gates of men's hearts".
As head of the Zengids , including Gumushtigin, he regarded Syria and Mesopotamia as his family estate and was angered when Saladin attempted to usurp his dynasty's holdings. Saif al-Din mustered a large army and dispatched it to Aleppo, whose defenders anxiously had awaited them.
The combined forces of Mosul and Aleppo marched against Saladin in Hama. Heavily outnumbered, Saladin initially attempted to make terms with the Zengids by abandoning all conquests north of the Damascus province , but they refused, insisting he return to Egypt.
Seeing that confrontation was unavoidable, Saladin prepared for battle, taking up a superior position at the Horns of Hama , hills by the gorge of the Orontes River. On 13 April , the Zengid troops marched to attack his forces, but soon found themselves surrounded by Saladin's Ayyubid veterans, who crushed them.
The battle ended in a decisive victory for Saladin, who pursued the Zengid fugitives to the gates of Aleppo, forcing as-Salih's advisers to recognize Saladin's control of the provinces of Damascus, Homs and Hama, as well as a number of towns outside Aleppo such as Ma'arat al-Numan.
From then on, he ordered prayers in all the mosques of Syria and Egypt as the sovereign king and he issued at the Cairo mint gold coins bearing his official title—al-Malik an-Nasir Yusuf Ayyub, ala ghaya "the King Strong to Aid, Joseph son of Job; exalted be the standard.
The Battle of Hama did not end the contest for power between the Ayyubids and the Zengids, with the final confrontation occurring in the spring of Saladin had gathered massive reinforcements from Egypt while Saif al-Din was levying troops among the minor states of Diyarbakir and al-Jazira. He viewed this as an omen, but he continued his march north. He reached the Sultan's Mound , c. A hand-to-hand fight ensued and the Zengids managed to plow Saladin's left wing, driving it before him, when Saladin himself charged at the head of the Zengid guard.
The Zengid forces panicked and most of Saif al-Din's officers ended up being killed or captured—Saif al-Din narrowly escaped.
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The Zengid army's camp, horses, baggage, tents and stores were seized by the Ayyubids. The Zengid prisoners of war , however, were given gifts and freed. All of the booty from the Ayyubid victory was accorded to the army, Saladin not keeping anything himself.
On the way, his army took Buza'a, then captured Manbij. From there, they headed west to besiege the fortress of A'zaz on 15 May. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Khalid bin Waleed. Jab Zindagi Shuru Hogi.
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