KAREN MINGST ESSENTIALS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PDF
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Essentials of International Relations. Seventh Edition. Paperback. Karen A. Mingst (Author, University of Kentucky), Ivan M. Arreguín-Toft Test Bank, PDF. Full text of "Essentials Of International Relations MINGST, Karen A." See other formats. UOpUCq.?[JO^ A\3[\J 5S§UT]/\[ *y U9IF)J f e V r V V v s. MingstEssentials-of-International-Relations. Pages. MingstEssentials-of- International-Relations. Uploaded by. Stanciu Virginia. Download with Google.
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The product is already in the wishlist! In contrast. Believing that a generalized theon' based on historical. It is the study of the behaviors of these nctors as they participate individt13l1y and together in international political processes. Yet periodic famine has been a fact of life in Somalia for centuries.
Different theoreticoll approaches help us see international relations from different viewpoints. Athens's greatest rival. History has been so fundamental to the study of international relations that there was no separate international relations subdiscipline until the early twentieth century. Cold War stockpiles. While constructivists. History Thus. History tells us that the bombings in Israel are part of a dispute over territory be- Many scholars following in Thucydides's footsteps use history in similar ways.
The task of postmodernist analysis is thus to deconstruct the basic concepts of the field and to replace them 'with multiple realities. Hong Kong.
Essentials of International Relations 7th Edition by Karen A. Mingst PDF eTextBook
Without any historical background. Distinguishing between the underlying and the immediate causes of wars. Constructivism has assumed increasing importance in twenty-first-century thinking about international relations. But those using history must be wary.
The ancient Greek historian Thueydides c. There is no single objective realitY1 only multiple realities based on individual experiences and perspectives. For example. History may be a bad guide. How do they find il1formation to assess the accuracy. The most immediate origins of the Somali famine of the early s can be found in the breakdown of central authority after the overthrow of President Siad Barre in Having deciphered patterns from the past.
As that city-state's power increased.
J "'l. Before that time. The Moscow summit meeting is one example of an approach to conducting diplomacy developed since World WarIl. The fluctuations in the value of the Japanese yen can be attrib. They contend that states do not act in regularized ways but are known only through the stories told about them. Among the best-developed alternative theories are postmodernism and constructivism.
Thucydides finds that what made that war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power. Therefore we are better off with a diverse array of competing ideas rather than a single theoretical orthodoxy. History invites its students to acquire detailed knowledge of specific events. As political scientist Stephen Walt explains. Postmodernists question the whole notion of states.
Competition between theories helps reveal their strengths and wealmesses and spurs subsequent refinements. Kant's analysis is based on a vision of human beings which is different from that of either Housseau or Hobbes.
Rousseau posed the dilemma in terms of the of the stag and the hare. Aristotle looked at thesimilarities and differences among states. Just as Plato's contributions to contemporary thinking are both substantive and methodological. States left in this anarchic condition act as man docs in the state of nature. Analyzing constitutions.
Kant envisioned a federation of states as a means to achieve peace.. Housseau analogized between these hunters and states. Do states follow short-term self-interest. Plato calls these ideal rulers "philosopher-kings. Sovereignties w. Jie both in substance the search for an ideal domestic political system andin method the comparative method. While admittedly selfish. And periodically. Or do they recognize the benefits of a common interest? In contemporary Marxist terms.
To Hobbes. In a each individual must keep to his assigned taskin order to find and trap the stag for food for the whole group.? Plato introduces two ideas seminal to the discipline: He came. Rousseau's preference is for the creation of smaller communities in which the "general will" can be attained.
The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan imagines a state of nature. In "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Extrapolating to the international level.
In the s. The early philosophers lead contemporary international relations scholars to the examination of the characteristics of leaders.
Whether international law has achieved these goals is discussed in Chapter 9. The task of those employing the legal approach is not only to describe the "laws" and norms that govern behavior but to prescribe those laws that are most useful.
In Treatise of the he finds the universe to be governed by "divine reason" and argues that human law needs to be made compatible with this natural law. Aquinas posited the existence of a law of nations. With its emphasis on normative questions. Behavioralism and between societies.
Thomas Aquinas They pondered new questions: Are there subtle and perhaps more intriguing patterns to diplomatic history than those found in the descriptive historical record?
Is individual behavior more predictable than the largely contextual descriptions of the historian? Is it possible to test whether the trends found through historical inquiry or the "oughts" proposed by the philosophers arc actually possible?
How do people-the foundation of the 9. These philosophers had varied. They allow us to speculate on the normative or moral c1cment in political life: What should be the role ofthe state? What ought to be the norms in international socicty? How might international society be structured to achieve order?. Some of their more important contributions are summarized in Table 1.
They probe how identities are shaped and changed over time.. By using multiple sets of data. Their disillusionment has taken several forms. These critics suggest returning to the philosophical roots of international relations. One group. Many will be satisfied. To trace the impact of ideas on shuping identities. Few would douhrthe importance of J. Postmodernists also seek to find the voices of the "the others.
They have relied on other methods. The multiple meanings of sovereignty are conditioned by time. Diggingbe10lV the surface of sovereignty. Others remain firmly committed to the behavioral approach.
Besearchers have begun to deconstruct core concepts and replace them with multiple meanings.. Using the tools of the scientific method to describe and human behavior. To some. The women learned how to maintain a peace camp. To others. They turn to texts.
Although the -. Once those hidden meanings are revealed. In Although the methods of behavioralismhave never been an end in themselves.. Political scientist Cynthia Weber. Some scholars. The task of the behavioral scientist is to suggest plausible hypotheses regarding those patterned actions and to systematically and empirically test those hypotheses. Are states as power-hungry as those who compare the anarchic international system to the state of nature would have us believe?
Scholars seeldng answers to these new questions were poised to contribute to the behavioral revolution in U. It challenges conventional understandings. Behavioralism proposes that individuals. I J This analysis has profound implications for the theory and practice of international relations.
The research question is an old one: Are democracies more prone to peace? More specifically. The Correlates of War project. And how are these factors related to one another? Although answering this question will never prove that a particular group of factors is the cause of war.
German and Japanese security policy from militmism to antimilitarism. Singer and Small turned to statistical data to discover the patterns. One study confirms the hypothesis that democracies do not go to war against one another: Rather than focusing on one war.
Why are states in the middle of democratic transitions more prone to conflict?
Essentials of International Relations pdf
How can we e: Do democracies fight nondemocracies more than they fight each other? Gathering data on different kinds of warfare over several centuries. That is the goal of that research project. For each of the 93 wars that fit these criteria. Why have some of the flndings on the democratic peace been divergent?
Behavioralists themselves point to some of the difflculties.! Once codified. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The two scholars chose a different methodological approach than their historian colleagues. Another example of a research program that used behavioral methods to examine a set of philosophical questions is found in the "democratic peace" debate. David Singer and his historian colleague Melvin Small attacked one of the fundamental questions in international relations: Why is there war?
As Singer himself latet acknowledged. Is there a relationship between the number of alliance commitments in the international system and the number of wars eApcrienced" Is there a relationship between the nUl bel' of great powers in the international system and the number of wars?
Is there a relationship between the number of wars over time and the severity of the conflict? In the Correlates of War studics and in subscquent studics using thc samc data. Another study finds that wars involving democracies have tended to. Believing that there are generalizable patterns to be found across all wars. Are characteristics within specific warring states most correlated with the outbreak of war? What is the correlation between international system-level factors-such as the existence of international organizations-and the outbreak of war?
If the Correlates of War project finds consistently high correlations between alliances and war or between international organizations and war. The ultimate goal of the project is to connect all the relationships that are found into a coherent theory of why wars occur. Based on ideas expressed by Immanuel Kant.!
S But the evidence is not that clear-cut and e: The initial task of the Correlates of War project was to collect data on international wars not civil wars between and in which 1. Some Thcse studies show how sodal and cultural factors shape national security policy in ways that contradict realist or liberal 13 ' expectations. Beginning in Drawing on case studies including Soviet foreign policy at the end of the Cold War.
Philosophical traditions provided the framework for the democratic peace project to follow.: History of the Pel0p0l1l1esirlll War. Each of these chapters is organized around the theoretical frameworks. In the last four chapters.
This "stuff' of diplomatic history is the of Chapter 2. International relations is a quintessential pluralistic and eclectic discipline. No important question of international relations today can be answered with exclusive reliance on anyone approach. One World. To understand the development of international relations theory. These theories provide alternative frameworks for asking and answering core foundational questions. That finding is statistically significant.
Chapter 3 is designed to help us think about the development of international relations theoretically from several framcworks-liberalism. Many Theories. How have scholars of international relations helped us make sense of the world around us?
In this chapter. Yet even with these qualifications. To answer these questions. These two research projects suggest that scholars utilize all the available approaches to answer the questions posed. In each of these chapters the focus is on comparing liberal.: And the newer uses of deconstructionism and thick description and discourse analysis provide an even richer base for the international relations scholar to utilize.
Such differences in research protocol might well lead to different research findings. Trevor J. Chapters 4. TIw Republic Harmondsworth. Stephen M. J 10 Spring The ['olitics. Macpherson Harmondsworth, Eng.: Donald A. Cress Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett Publishing, Writings ofJean-Jacques Rousseau, Cress, A Philosophical Sketch , both reprinted in Kant Selections, ed. Macmillan Co;, Hobert Maynard Hutchins Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, , Cynthia Weber, Simulating Sovereignty: Cambridge UniverSity Press, Christine Sylvester, "EmpathetiC Cooperation: Joumal of Intemational Studies Peter J.
Katzenstein, ed, The Culture of National Security. Columbia University Press, War, A Statistical Hand-. Wiley, See William J. Which historical periods have most influenced the development of international relations? What are the historical origins of the state? Why is the Treaty of Westphalia used as a benchmark for international relations scholars?
What are the historical origins of the European balance-oj-power system? How could the Cold War be both a series of confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union and a "long peace"? Why did the Cold War end?
Students of international relations need to understand the events and trends of the past. Theorists recognize that core concepts in the field-the state, the nation, sovereignty, power, balance of power-were developed and shaped by historical circumstances. Policymakers search the past for patterns and precedents to guide contemporary decisions. In large part, the major antecedents to the contemporary international system are found in European-centered Western civilization. Great civilizations thrived in other parts of the world too, of course; India and China, among others, have had extensive, vibrant civilizations since long before the historical events covered below.
But the European emphasis is justified on the basis that contemporary international relations, in both theory and practice, is rooted in the European experience, for better or worse. In this chapter, we will first look at the period before a seminal year for students of international relations , then the. The purpose of this historical overview is to trace important trends over time-the emergence of the state and the notion of sovereignty, the development of the international state system, and the changes in distribution of power among key states.
These trends have a direct impact on international relations theory and practice today. With secular authority came the principle that has provided the foundation for international relations ever since: The classical Greek city-state system provides one of the antecedents for: The Greeks, organized in independent citystates, were at the height of their power in B. As the militaries of the great city-states struggled, states carried on economic relations and trade with each other to an unprecedented degree.
This environment clearly fostered the flowering of the strong philosophical tradition of Plato and Aristotle that we studied in Chapter 1. In this setting, dty-states-each an independent unit-conducted peaceful relations with each other as they vied for power-a precursor of the modern state system. Governing of an Empire Many of the Greek city-states were eventually incorporated into the Roman Empire 50 3. The Roman Empire served as the precursor for larger political systems.
Its leaders imposed order and unity by force on a large geographic expanse-covering much of Europe, the. Mediterranean portions of Asia, the Middle East, and northern Africa. Having conquered far-flung and diverse peoples, the Roman leaders were preoccupied with keeping the various units-tribes, kingdoms, and states-within their sphere of influence and ensuring that the fluid borders of the empire remained secure from the roving hordes to the north and east.
Indeed, from the Roman ell. When the Roman Empire disintegrated in the fifth century A. D;, power and authority became decentralized in Europe, but other forms of interaction flourished-tnvel, commerce, and communication, not just among the elites but also among merchant groups and ordinarydtizens.
By A. First among , them was the Arabic civilization, which had the largest geographic expanSe, stretching from the Middle East and Persia through North Africa to the Iberian peninsula. United under the religious and political dominationpf the Islamic' Caliphate, the Arabic language, and advanced mathematical ,and technical accomplishments, the Arabic civilization was a ' potent force.
Second was the Byzantine Empire, located nearer the core of. Much 'of western Europe reverted. Thus, authority was centered either in Rome and in its agents, the bishops, dispersed throughout medieval Europe or in the local fiefdom. Yet even the bishops seized considerable independent authority despite their overarching allegiance to the church. Economic life was also intensely local. In the late eighth century, the church's monopoly on power was challenged by Carolus Magnus, or Charlemagne , the leader of the Franks in what is today France.
Charlemagne was granted authority to unite western Europe in the name of Christianity against the Byzantine Empire in the east; the pope made him emperor of the Holy Roman. Roman philosophers provide an essential theon: In particular, Marcus Tullius Cicero B. He proposed that men ought to be united by a law among nations applicable to humanity as a whole. Above all, the Roman Empire itself and the writers it spawned provided the foundation for a larger geographic en-.
These small units. Charlemagne offered the pope protection. City-states of northern Italy-Genoa. New technology. The debate between religious and secular authority would continue for hundreds of years.
These economic and technological changes led to fundamental changes in social relations. The individual 22 I! Developing Transnational Network: Although the intellectual debate was not resolved. One such writer was Dante Alighieri These diplomatic practices-establishing embassies with permanent staff.
In return. This group acquired more cosmopolitan experiences outside the realm of the church and its teachings. The Holy Iloil1anEmpire itself was a weak secular institution.
The contradictions remained. Commercial activit ' eA'Panded into larger geographic areas.
Yet successors to Charlemagne did provide a limited secular alternative to the church. For some theorists. Thc cleavage between the religiousness of medieval times and the humanism of the latcr Renaissance was thus starkly drawn.
In T1Je Prince Machiavelli elucidated the qualities that a leader needs to maintain the strength and security of the state. Having no universal morality to guide them. Machiavelli called on leaders to articulate their own political interests. The move toward centralization did not go uncontested.
They believed in themselves. Heman Cortes to Mexico in Other parts of Europe were mired in the secular-versus-religious controversy. In some key locales such as France. Francisco Pizarro to the Andes in: Realizing that the dream of unity in Christianity was Ul" attainable and probably undesirable. During this age of exploration European civiHzation spread to distant shores.
New monarchs needed thetax funds to build armies. The Italian philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli With one stJ: Catholicism or Protestantism. Thirty YearS.
And that state became increasingly more powerful. The state with a national army emerged. Much of the development of the notion is found in the writings of the French philosopherJean Bodin Larger territorial units gained an advantage as armaments became more sophisticated. This meant that monarchs. With the power of the pope and the emperor stripped. A1though absolute. To Bodin. War I devastated Europe.
And last. The growth of such forces led to increasingly centralized control. They agree to establish government to ensurenatural. Nationalism leads people to participate actively in the political process. During the Enlightenment. According to Smith. In Two Treatises Government. The most important theorist of the time was the Scottish economist Adam Smith Men freely enter into this' arrangement. European politics was dominated by multiple rivalries and shifting alliances.
Until the end of the eighteenth century. Held together by a series of ad hoe conferences. Peace at the Core of tr. Yet in both regions. No major wars among these great powers were fought after the demise of Napoleon until the Crimean War in I With groups of individuals pursuing selfinterests. The crux of Locke's argument is that political power ultimately rests with the people.
This appeal forged an emotional link between the masses and the state. Peter the Great of Russia Louis XIV of France Other local wars of brief duration were fought in which some of the five major powers remained neutral. These rivalries were also played out in regions beyond Europe.
But other ideas of the period would also dramatically alter governance in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Those in the west-England.
In the west. At the aggregate level. What makes the system work is the so-called invisible hand of the market. These two principles-legitimacy and nationalism-rose out of the American and French Revolutions to provide the foundation for politics in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In An Inquiry into. Smith argued that the notion of a market should apply to all social orders. Britain supported Italian unification.
Italy was unified in Britain and France sided together against thethreeeasterll 'powers Prussia. This was. Europeans saw more than ever their commonalities.
German unification was acceptable to Russia as long as its interest in Poland was respected. The population growth rate soared and commerce stirged as transportation corridors were strengthened. In the first half of the century. European leaders acted in concert. Germany was formed out of thirty-nine different fragments in With such dramatic changes under way.
Holland was divided into the Netherlands and Belgium in the s.
Napoleon III was isolated quickly for fear of a revolution that never. Fear from below thus united European leaders. At least three factors e. Bulin the second half of the century. Elites envisioned grand alliances that would bring European leaders together to fight revolution from below. The Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe gave form to these beliefs.
European elites were united in their fear of revolution from the masses. In fact. But the five European powers did not fight major wars directly against each other. For others. The industrial revolution provided the European states with the military and economic to engage in territorial expansion.
In the nineteenth century the halallce of power mennt that the independent Europe. Puerto Rico. Britain and Russia. Britain became the source of finance capital.
In the second half of the nineteenth century. European state rivalries were played out in Africa and Asia. This ". Balance of Power How wns this period of relative peace in Europe managed and preserved for so long? The answer lies in a coneept called the balance of power. Some imperial states were motivated by economic gains. China had been carved into spheres of influence. And the United States was an imperial power. Great Britain was the leader.
By the end of the century. At the Congress of flerlin in Europeans controlled four-fifths of the world. By the end of the nineteenth century. By The treaties signed after were designed not only to quell revolution from below but to prevent the emergence of a hegemon. To still others. Industrialization romped through virtually all areas of western Europe as the masses flocked to the. The struggle for economic prowess led to heedless exploitation of the colonial areas.
In Asia. Through support for Serbia. The only ideol?. The two sides were enmeshed in a struggle betWeencompeiitive alliances.. Under the system of alliances. Thus was peace preserved in Europe during the nineteenth century..
Being a "latecomer" to the core of European power.. Russia's role was as a builder of alliances.: And in Britain ensured that other states did not interfere and that Europe remained balanced. Britain joined with France in the Entente Cordiale. To satisfy Germany's ambitions. Russian interests in Dardanelles. After all. Two camps emerged: Germany encouraged Austria to crush Serbia..
European imperialism provided a convenient outlet for Germany's aspirations as a unified power vvithout endangering the delicate balance of power within Europe itself. Britain most often played the role of balancer. Solidification ofAlliances By the waning years of the nineteenth century.
Britain broke from the "balancer" role. But the At. Germany had not been satisfied with the solutions meted out at the Congress of Berlin in United by European characteristics and by the imperial enterprise. German ambitions for new. And the United States.. They still sought additional territory. Germany did not receive the diplomatic recognition and status its leaders desired.
In Europe. This alliance marked a significant turn: S Al': Hussia exited the war in J But the organization itself did not have the political weight. Thenationalism of these various groups Austrians. Second to disintegrate was the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The political weight of the League was weakened by the fact that the United States. It was anticipated that the war would be short and decisive.
Hungarians had been stimulated by technological innovations in the printing industry. The czar was overthrown and eventually replaced by not only a new leader Vladimir 1. Germany emerged out ofWorld War I an even more dissatisfied power. The Ottomans. More than 8. Yet in reality. Third to be reconfigured was the Ottoman Empire. Between and Nor did Russia join. Lenin but a new ideology that would have profound implications for the rest of the twentieth century.
The end of the empires produced proliferating nationalisms. Not only had Germany been defeated on the military battlefield and its territorial ambitions been thwarted. The League's legal authority was weak. Italy's overrunning Ethiopia in These were the symptoms of the interwar period.! I lian. J broke out. It drew on the belief that war and conflict were noble activities. That alliance was intended to check. It drew strength from the belief that certain racial groups were superior.
German fascism uniquely mobilized the masses in support of the state. Britain and France 'acquiesced to Germany's resurgence. I The power of fascismGerman. For various reasons.
Britain agreed in tc let Germany occupy Czechoslovalda. Germany proved to be the real challenge And the world that the realists experienced was a turbulent one: Having been rearmed under Hitler in the Is. But that vision was not to be: Japan's marching into Manchuria in and into the rest of China in But this was an idle hope. Germany was ready to right the "wrongs" imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
Great Britain. Differences surfaced immediately over geopolitical national interests. The most important outcome of World Vv'ar II was the emergence of two superpowers-the United States and the Soviet Union-as the primary actors in the international system.
Britain's prime minister Winston Churchill. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. The second outcome of the war was the recognition of fundamental incompatibilities between these two superpowers in both national interests and ideology. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were reluctant powers.
Containing the Soviets. President Truman asserted. Neither hadheen anxious to fight. Justifying material support in Greece against the communists. As for the United States. But by the end of the war. Germany and Korea were divided. Each of these changes contributed to the new international conflict: Kennan therefore wrote. These plans were consolidated in and and came to fruition in the United Nations in The Soviet leadership believed that ensuring friendly neighbors on its western borders was vital to Soviet national interests.
Marxist ideology. Charter's endorsement of the principle of national self-determination. Soviet communist ideology also affected that country's conception of. These differences pitted two contrasting visions of society and of the international order. Differences between the two superpowers were exacerbated by mutual misperceptions. International relations became truly global. Soviet leaders thus felt themselves surrounded by a hostile capitalist camp and argued that the Soviet Union "must not weaken but must in every way strengthen its state.
The Europeans. At the international level. For the other colonialists. The defeat of Japan and Germany led to the immediate end of their respective imperial empires. As the number of newly independent states proliferated in the postwar world as the result of decolonization.
The leaders of the '. Then in Shortly there: Jittle'orno government interference. The United States and the Soviet Union also had major ideological differences. The fourth outcome was the realization that the differences would be played out indirectly. African states. Soviet Union saw themselves in an interim period-after the demise of the capitalist state and before the victory of socialism.
The Soviet stilte embraced. For France. Other p: War imperativcs. The Soviet crackdown on Czechoslovakia [J and the mounting of the Berlin blockade. This ideology had critical international elements. The third outcome of the end of World War II was the beginning of the end of the colonial system Kennan cites powerful examples of misperceptions on the part of each superpower: The Mnrshall Plan..
The United States's democratic liberalism was based on a social system that accepted the worth and 'value of the individual. While the process of decolonialization occurred over an eitended time period. The solution to the problem of class rule.
The United States. Somalia that. The Cold War as a Series of Confrontations The Cold War itself can be characterized as forty-five years of overall high-level tension and competition between the superpowers but with no direct military conflict.
The first Asian confrontation came in as communist North Korean troops. Some of these confrontations involved only the United States and the Soviet Union.
Germany's capital. In the. Germany had been divided immediately after World War II into zones of occupation. In the separate states of West and East Germany were declared. Ethiopia vs. Table 2. Each state backed down from particular confrontations. Returning home. One of those high-level.
South Vietnam. Over the life of the' Cold 'Yar. The Soviets never fought directly. South Korea. Chou En-Iai and his colleague Mao Zedong insisted that China was a semifeudal society in which the proletariat was the rural peasantry. Later in theJs.Can you find universal patterns of activity. Carolus Magnus, or Charlemagne, the leader of the Franks in what is today France , challenged the churchs monopoly on power in the late eighth century. Cambridge University Press.
The nineteenth century opened with war in Europe on an unprecedented scale. Therefore the central cause of all state behavior in the cold war was the fact that the US and USSR were the two powerful states in a bipolar system. They set agendas and force governments to make decisions. They turn to texts. Intangible Sources of Power National image: people within states have images of their states power potential images that translate into an intangible power ingredient.