KOREAN GRAMMAR FOR INTERNATIONAL LEARNERS PDF
Korean Grammar for International Learners is a Korean grammar book designed for beginning and intermediate learners featuring: Focus on. Korean grammar for international custom-speeches.com - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Korean Grammar for International Learners - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online.
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Korean grammar for international custom-speeches.com - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf) or view presentation slides online. I put it on Mediafire custom-speeches.com custom-speeches.com Intermediate Korean: a grammar & workbook / Andrew Sangpil Byon. p. cm. Simultaneously published Inte 03 Korean Grammar for International Learners. pdf.
Familiarity with the forms of letter-writing. Familiarity with idiomatic forms of the Korean language. Sino-Korean phrases compiled by the committee. Practical exercises in the improvisation of prayers. Exercises in conversation without prior preparation. Read: Sinhak we! Notes I: The "Introduction" to Scott provides learners with an acquaintance with the history of the Korean alphabct and a celiain philological point of view. New York: Fleming H.
Learners should acquaint themselves with idiomatic forms only insofar as thcy encounter them in the course of their studies. Expromptll prayers and conversations can be applied also in public worship services. Later p. The Presbyterians seem to have vacillated between a five-year and a three-year system before finally settling on the latter in the first years of the twentieth century, and the Methodists, too, operated a three-year course by James Scarth Gale was the most influential figure when it came to KFL study and curriculum, and his own continued personal training in hal1lll with highly educated Korean scholars, as well as his widcly acknowledged superior talent and ability in Korean, seem to have led to somewhat over-ambitious and unrealistic courses of study throughout the s.
Certainly the Presbyterian curriculum for would prove a major challenge to even the most II He also notes p. Pavel' himself was one of very few Russian Orthodox priests who mastered Korean to any significant degree. Many missionaries especially doctors and married women found both the language itself and the Examination Committee's curriculum and exams difficult andlor impractical.
Study of Chinese characters was emphasized at first, and to varying degrees, but for a variety of reasons one can imagine, among others, a the Kab'o Reforms and the demise of the traditional civil service examinations, b the missionaries' desire to promote the vemacular Korean script, and c the inherent difficulty of Chinese writing and hanmun was demoted to 'optional' status by Lack of textbooks was a problem in the early years, and the French grammar continued to be featured in the Presbyterian and Methodist courses of study well after the publication of both Gale's Korean grammatical forms and Baird's FiF i helps.
With the publication of these latter two works, 'grammar' - meaning mostly different verb endings no less than of them in the second-year Methodist course! Moreover, no new textbooks were ever published for missionaries, and instead, Gale's Korean grammatical forms was simply reprinted without substantial changes in and In many ways, it is a shame that Gale never made the production of a proper KFL textbook one of his projects, as it is clear from his numerous translations that he had a highly nuanced understanding of Korean in all its manifestations, both colloquial and written.
However, Gale left behind a series of short contributions on Korean language and Korean grammar in an obscure missionary joumal that he edited and published from called The Korea magazine.
These monthly installments were targeted at newer missionaries in Korea still leaming the language, and are some of the earliest examples of prolonged 'meta-talk' on Korean grammar in the history of KFL education. Thus, the February, issue p. James S.
Gale in editorial charge of a Department on The Korean Language, to make its first appearance in the March number. Gale has been a diligent student of the Korean language for twenty-five years, and there is no man in Korea better prepared to have charge of this Department.
For example, an article will shortly appear on hago 12 hokwo , haya hoya , and hani honi , dealt with years lago, but ever a burning question I 3. The chances are that you will be wrong. The reader is reminded that Yale forms in italiC!
See Martin for details. It will compare similar forms that still have their difference.
It will ny to help the reader to understand the meaning of the present transition period as far as the language is concemed. Gale The overall purpose of the new monthly feature on Korean language is reinforced in the following issue March, , pp. That there are difficulties there is universal testimony, but that the difficulties are insurmountable few will care to admit..
The only method left the foreign student, then, is to compare sentences illustrating as wide a variety of use as possible, and see wherein they follow a definite and fixed law.
This must constantly be kept in mind: Is the clause complete in itsclf or is it mercly preparatOlY to the one following? If complete, use hago; if simply preparatory, use haya.
To illustrate. Let us state a general rule for the use of! Haya joins clauses, expressing condition. Haya and hani are interchangeable where action and condition are united to express cause and effect.
Active clauses "He struck me and han i I cried. Condition clauses "It is so hot haya I cannot stand it. J was so cold I thought J would die. The sun went down and it was dark. Go and tell him to come quickly. How would you translate this foreign made scntence?
Gale The passage above is one of the first sustained attempts at a prolonged English-language exposition of the differences between - ko, -e se and - ni kka , and if one abstracts away some of the old-fashioned terminology, it compares favorably well with explanations of these endings circulating in textbooks today. The next month's issue April , p. Such a statement implies continued action, nothing more.
The May, issue pp. This looks vcry simple, but thcre is yet a measure of difficulty attending it not evident on the surface. These mean, among other things, "Hc is coming. I can say, howcver, loyil ,vollllloyta "He is coming tomorrow," using it as a futurc. This is also correct. There is no doubt as to his coming in eithcr case; in one, I see him approaching; and in the othcr, my knowledge is sufficicnt.
But another form suggests itself, namcly, wociwo or woci "He is coming. Yes, and no. Sometimes it is, and sometimcs it is not. For example you say Nai-il o-ji-o, or Nai-il om-nai-ta and they arc about the samc. Perhaps thc ccrtainty and definiteness that attcnds om-nai-ta is slightly lacking in o-ji-o, but for all practical purposes they are thc samc. You can say cikllll1 lVociwo, "He is coming now;" and you can say ciklllll WOll1l1oyla "Hc is coming now.
To further illustrate this you may say kekuy lVollllloyta "Thcrc he comes," but you cannot say kekuy lVociwo. Wc concludc from this that o-ji-o is not so definite a form as om-nai-ta, but has something of uncertainty, and is a future form, nevcr a present right-before-the-eycs form as om-nai-ta may be.
The leyla and tela endings might be called 'witness endings' It is not used by one who sces and says "He is coming," nor by one who witnesses to the fact that he is already on the way, nor a doubtful futurc like o-ji-o, but a definite statement that implies "assuredly, certainly, without question he is coming.
Om-nain-ta, He is coming for I know it definitely, no question whatever. In the March, issue pp. In thinking over somc oddity or irregularity that aecompanies these nouns, the question of case suggests itself Nouns have ordinarily nine case endings, if we make the plural one of them; but thc oddity I was thinking of appears where the cases are again added to, and themselves go through a partial round of inflection.
The same may be said of ,lye, It gives an added force where it occurs properly. The dative case uykey may take the same forms. You may give it to some other, but not to him, is a thought implied. The East especially enjoys speaking with the downward curve, when the sentence has in it something of the flavour of, "You uncombed dog, you, hear what your grandfather has to say.
There is nothing really malignant in it; it is like a freehanded cuff on the side of the head suggcsting that the party spoken to kcep his place. No person in Korea likcs to be spoken to in this way, and yet in the space of a quarter of a centUlY the writer has seldom heard anyone resent it, or offer a reply.
13.Korean grammar for international learners.pdf
Once on a timc, a velY voluble day-labourer told a serving-woman we had, that he had no intention of taking her downward curves, and that she could deal them out elsewhere. However, before they got through she gave him such a dose of how his grandmothcr would talk to him, that he bowed his head under the torrent of it and said no more.
I-low wonderful it is that a Korean knows just when and how to level the shots so effectively that roar along the downward curves. He does it by endings, by different words, or by an entire recasting of the sentence.
Should foreigners use them? Foreigners don't know how to use them.
They do the best they can with children and school-boys, but they soon find that the ordinmy grown-up servant resents a foreigner's low forms as much as an Irish Nationalist dislikes being 'Don't you know'd' by an Englishman.
The even line represents the ordinary run of conversation between equals. This too, is velY interesting as it frequently resolves itself into a mutual give and take sails cerelllonie. Any student of the language must be charmed with the surprising case with which equals deal with each other, by familiar touches, by shortened forms, or by the use of a code entirely their own.
Then there are the high forms that curve upward with the grace of a fi'eshly launched acroplane.
The store of high honorifics that the ordinary Korean has in his keeping surely beats all. A tousle-head from the strcct if suddenly ushered into the presence of a king will acquit himsclf with a curve of high rcgard that would put all our best efforts to collect our senses to shamc. How skillfully he can exprcss that graceful touch of honour; and what a world of complimcnt he can call forth from among his linguistic rcscrvcs that hang on the turn of a word or the upward swing of thc scntence.
One of thc uses of these higher forms is that you can deal out a 'piecc of your mind', that is, say definitely what you wish, and at the same time smooth thc listencr's fcathers by the gentle upward curvc of the sentence. The writer regards Korean as one of the most highly giftcd forms of expression.
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It goes to show, daily, how crude we are in our manner of speech, and how little time we have spent in thinking out forms that would express a sense of appreciation or high regard. For example, the very first sentence, "Go quickly and sec" elnun ka pwosiJllo illustrates the Korean manner of putting words together, showing that it is quite different from the English.
The W1'iter, for want of something better, would suggest that every stlldent of Korean learn by heaJi, yes, learn to know as you do the Multiplication Table, these Hundred Sentences. It is practically of no use to skim over a lot of the paper, but of great use to read a small part well;" a passage from the Mayil Sinpo demonstrating new lexical and grammatical trends in the language December, , pp.
Korean Grammar for International Learners
All in all, Gale's observations in this shOli series of installments, when combined with his many unpublished reports on the language in texts submitted for consideration by the Christian Literature Society in the late teens and early I s, constitute a valuable eye-witness account of Korean grammar, lexicon and literary style at a time when the Korean language was undergoing rapid change. As with most aspects of the fields of second language acquisition, applied linguistics and language education, the tone and tenor of the discoursc on grammar instruction has been set by academics working primarily in ESL, a fact of no small importance to those of us teaching a language as different fi'om English as Korean.
The timing of the demotion of 'grammar' to dirty word in applied linguistics has also been unfortunate for the KFL field, at least in North America, insofar as the late s and s have marked a considerable boom in the field of KFL, accompanied by the creation of numerous teaching positions albeit mostly non-professorial. Many of our Korean language instructors now, who in any case rarely came to North America with a background in kwukchak or Korean grammar from their undergraduate education, were exposed to ESL-centric methodology courses with clearly articulated biases against explicit grammar instruction in graduate school during this period, and the results can be seen all around in us in the form of lousy KFL textbooks with generally lousy grammatical explanations, teachers who are hopeless at doing explicit grammatical instruction and who in any case are ideologically opposed to it , and KFL 14 Richard Robin comments: "Grammar is like sex.
It's a basic fact of life for both language teacher and language learner. It casts a huge shadow over both teacher and learner, ofrcn dominating the relationship. And it has become taboo. I would also submit that KFL instruction in Korea itself fares no better, insofar as grammar is taught not through explicit grammar instruction prose explanations in textbooks published in Korea, such as they are, tend to occur only in the lower levels, and are too short and full of 'Konglish' to be of any real use to learners , but through rather unimaginative drills by monolingual Korean speakers incapable of meta-talk about Korean in the target language of their studcnts.
So what lessons does the missionary experience of one hundred years ago and more offer to us today? For starters, it is always a sobering thought, as we attempt to teach Korean for a mere hours per academic year, to recall that even highly motivated learners living and studying in-country for three or even five years still struggled with Korean at the end of their courses of study.
Secondly, we do know that many of these early missionaries as well as missionaries that followed them did nonetheless manage to attain high levels of proficiency in Korean, and that explicit grammar instruction was part and parcel of their training.
Third, James Scarth Gale's contributions to the teaching and learning of Korean by Anglophones always bear remembering. The succinct, breezy, charming and insightful essays that he wrote on various aspects of Korean grammatical structure for the Korea magazine are superior to more than a few prose explanations still current in textbooks in print today.
Meta-talk about grammar in the learner's first language is an important aspect of language learning for adults, but the KFL field today has few individuals that are both capable of it and yet not hostile to it. Richard Robin, Associate Professor of Russian at George Washington University, has published a number of thought-provoking short opinion pieces based on his experiences teaching Russian that arc full of useful insights for those of us teaching Korean Thus, much like Korean, Russian is a language that is 15 For example, Robin is about the problem of heritage vs.
But for a morphologically complex language such as Russian, explicit grammar instruction occupies the front passenger seat. Does this not mean it is high time that explicit grammar instruction was taken out of the hunk and put back in the front passenger seat in KFL?
Doughty, Catherine and. Jessica Williams eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seoul: Trilingual Press. J mns K. Seoul: Methodist Publishing House.
Yokohama Printed by Fukuin Printing Co. Seoul: Christian Literature Society of Korea. Vladivostoksko-Primorskaia Eparkhiia. Kim, Cwungsep , Hankwuke kyoyuk uy ihay [Understanding Korean language education].
Seoul: Hankwllk munhwasa. Seoul: Korean Society of Bilingualism. Acta Koreana vol. I, August , pp. Journal of international and area studies, vol.
II, no. King, Ross and Dong-un Kim. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Boston, MA: Tuttle Publishing.
Hankul Kontsevich, Lev R. Photo via Amazon. A comprehensive, thorough Korean book can help you learn the basics. If you can, try to find someone who is a native speaker.
Korean grammar for international learners
A Korean language teacher can help you learn grammar and pronunciation, and he or she can also explain language levels and cultural differences. There are some great resources out there, if you know where to look. Here are some of the best Korean books for beginners.
The lessons are broken down into separate sections, or you can download them as one complete package. The lessons start at a very basic level, and progress to the intermediate level. I lent this to a neighbor reviewing for a KLPT exam. I browsed it a little though. Recommended for intermediate or at least upper beginner learners because the book is entirely in Korean. At first it was difficult for me to read this. Not just because of some difficult words after all, everything has translations , but the linguistics terms were all difficult for me.
The approach is very linguistics. What I am doing is I try making sentences using grammar points that are being discussed in the book. It has a linguistic approach and I love it for that. Basic grammar lessons. But I was a bit disappointed because I already know all the lessons in the book. I was expecting some hardcore intermediate lessons.
But I must say the book is pretty good with the explanations, examples and exercises. A Korean friend gave it to me as a send-off present last summer. I was too shy to tell him I need the intermediate one instead.Gifford, and Moffett , indicates that p. Study of 25 verbal endings or connectivcs. Study sentences of first four chapters in Part II of Underwood's Introduction, noting especially the divisions of eaeh chapter. But for a morphologically complex language such as Russian, explicit grammar instruction occupies the front passenger seat.
Gifford and 1. Levy et S. Page 11 of this brochure gives the details of the mission's policy on examinations and course of study as adopted at the annual meeting of Februmy, , and is interesting in that the microfilm copy includes penciled-in corrections that must have resulted from debate and discussion at this meeting corrections reproduced as per the original archival document : "F. Kim, Cwungsep , Hankwuke kyoyuk uy ihay [Understanding Korean language education].
Sino-Korean phrases compiled by the committee.
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