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AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 8TH EDITION PDF

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Eighth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall/Pearson Education, pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, An introduction to theories of. Introduction to Theories of Personality, An, 8th Edition. Matthew H. Olson, Hamline University. B.R. H. Hergenhahn, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Hamline. Study Introduction to Theories of Personality, An (8th Edition) discussion and chapter questions and find Introduction to Theories of Personality, An (8th Edition ).


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Additionally, they found that African Americans who thought the test measured intelligence were more likely to complete word fragments using words associated with relevant negative stereotypes e. Adjusted for previous SAT scores, subjects in the non-diagnostic-challenge condition performed significantly better than those in the non-diagnostic-only condition and those in the diagnostic condition.

In the first experiment, the race-by-condition interaction was marginally significant. However, the second study reported in the same paper found a significant interaction effect of race and condition. This suggested that placement in the diagnostic condition significantly impacted African Americans compared with European Americans. However, in certain situations, stereotype activation can also lead to performance enhancement through stereotype lift or stereotype boost.

Stereotype lift increases performance when people are exposed to negative stereotypes about another group. Although stereotype boost is similar to stereotype lift in enhancing performance, stereotype lift is the result of a negative outgroup stereotype, whereas stereotype boost occurs due to activation of a positive ingroup stereotype.

Conversely, these participants did worse on the math test when instead their gender identity—which is associated with stereotypes of inferior quantitative skills—was made salient, which is consistent with stereotype threat.

In one case, the effect was only reproduced after excluding participants who were unaware of stereotypes about the mathematical abilities of Asians or women, [46] while the other replication failed to reproduce the original results even considering several moderating variables.

However, research has also shown that stereotype threat can cause individuals to blame themselves for perceived failures, [48] self-handicap , [2] discount the value and validity of performance tasks, [49] distance themselves from negatively stereotyped groups, [50] and disengage from situations that are perceived as threatening.

This, in turn, can lead to self-regulatory efforts, more anxiety, and other behaviors that are commonly perceived as suspicious to police officers. For example, a woman may stop seeing herself as "a math person" after experiencing a series of situations in which she experienced stereotype threat. This disidentification is thought to be a psychological coping strategy to maintain self-esteem in the face of failure.

Although much of the research on stereotype threat has examined the effects of coping with negative stereotype on academic performance, recently there has been an emphasis on how coping with stereotype threat could "spillover" to dampen self-control and thereby affect a much broader category of behaviors, even in non-stereotyped domains.

For example, women might overeat, be more aggressive, make more risky decisions, [59] and show less endurance during physical exercise. Perceived discrimination has been extensively investigated in terms of its effects on mental health, with a particular emphasis on depression.

You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. April Additional research seeks ways to boost the test scores and academic achievement of students in negatively stereotyped groups. There are many ways to combat the effects of stereotype threat. In one study, teaching college women about stereotype threat and its effects on performance was sufficient to eliminate the predicted gender gap on a difficult math test. However, other research has found the opposite effect.

In one study, women were given a text "summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown to be the cause of women's underperformance in math", and then they performed a math exercise. It was found that "women who properly understood the meaning of the information provided, and thus became knowledgeable about stereotype threat, performed significantly worse at a calculus task". If people believe that they can improve their performance based on effort, they are more likely to believe that they can overcome negative stereotypes and perform well.

In , researchers Geoffrey L. Cohen et al. For the written assignment group, white students performed worse than minority students. For the clinical assessment, both groups improved their performance maintaining the racial difference. Increase participants' feelings of social belonging within the academic world. Greg Walton and Geoffrey Cohen were able to boost the grades of African-American college students, as well as eliminate the racial achievement gap over the first year of college, by telling participants that concerns about social belonging tend to lessen over time.

If minority college students are welcomed into the world of academia, they are less likely to be influenced by the negative stereotypes of poor minority performance on academic tasks. Construct environments and have the physical objects in the environment not reflect one majority group. In this study, removing stereotypical computer science objects and replacing them with non-stereotypical objects increased female participation in computer science to an equal level as male peers.

In one study, women in the STEM related field were shown a video of a conference with either a balanced or unbalanced ratio of men to women. The women viewing an unbalanced ratio reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate. Decreasing cues that reflect only a majority group and increasing cues of minority groups can create environments that mitigate against stereotype threat. Researchers also proved that encouraging women to think about their multiple roles and identities by creating self-concept map did equally well as men on a math portion of the GRE.

Furthermore, women who did not create a self-concept map did significantly worse on the math test than men did. Research indicates that students have a lower sense of belonging at institutions where they are the minority. However, developing friendships with other racial groups alleviated against a sense of not belonging.

Although much of the research on stereotype threat has examined the effects of coping with negative stereotype on academic performance, recently there has been an emphasis on how coping with stereotype threat could "spillover" to dampen self-control and thereby affect a much broader category of behaviors, even in non-stereotyped domains. For example, women might overeat, be more aggressive, make more risky decisions, [59] and show less endurance during physical exercise.

Perceived discrimination has been extensively investigated in terms of its effects on mental health, with a particular emphasis on depression. You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. April Additional research seeks ways to boost the test scores and academic achievement of students in negatively stereotyped groups.

There are many ways to combat the effects of stereotype threat. In one study, teaching college women about stereotype threat and its effects on performance was sufficient to eliminate the predicted gender gap on a difficult math test. However, other research has found the opposite effect. In one study, women were given a text "summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown to be the cause of women's underperformance in math", and then they performed a math exercise.

It was found that "women who properly understood the meaning of the information provided, and thus became knowledgeable about stereotype threat, performed significantly worse at a calculus task". If people believe that they can improve their performance based on effort, they are more likely to believe that they can overcome negative stereotypes and perform well. In , researchers Geoffrey L. Cohen et al. For the written assignment group, white students performed worse than minority students.

For the clinical assessment, both groups improved their performance maintaining the racial difference. Increase participants' feelings of social belonging within the academic world.

Greg Walton and Geoffrey Cohen were able to boost the grades of African-American college students, as well as eliminate the racial achievement gap over the first year of college, by telling participants that concerns about social belonging tend to lessen over time. If minority college students are welcomed into the world of academia, they are less likely to be influenced by the negative stereotypes of poor minority performance on academic tasks.

Construct environments and have the physical objects in the environment not reflect one majority group. In this study, removing stereotypical computer science objects and replacing them with non-stereotypical objects increased female participation in computer science to an equal level as male peers. In one study, women in the STEM related field were shown a video of a conference with either a balanced or unbalanced ratio of men to women.

The women viewing an unbalanced ratio reported a lower sense of belonging and less desire to participate. Decreasing cues that reflect only a majority group and increasing cues of minority groups can create environments that mitigate against stereotype threat. Researchers also proved that encouraging women to think about their multiple roles and identities by creating self-concept map did equally well as men on a math portion of the GRE. Furthermore, women who did not create a self-concept map did significantly worse on the math test than men did.

Research indicates that students have a lower sense of belonging at institutions where they are the minority. However, developing friendships with other racial groups alleviated against a sense of not belonging. One study found that having students reexamine their situation or anxiety can help their executive resources attentional control, working memory, etc.

As a result, students are more likely to implement alternative study strategies and seek help from others. According to Paul R.

Introduction to Theories of Personality, An (8th Edition)

Sackett, Chaitra M. Hardison, and Michael J. Cullen, both the media and scholarly literature have wrongly concluded that eliminating stereotype threat could completely eliminate differences in test performance between European Americans and African Americans. In subsequent correspondence between Sackett et al. Jensen criticised stereotype threat theory on the basis that it invokes an additional mechanism to explain effects which could be, according to him, explained by other, well-known, and well-established theories, such as test anxiety and especially the Yerkes—Dodson law.

An earlier experiment with Advanced Placement exams found no effects that were 'practically significant,' but does show 'statistically significant' effect. Geary reviewed the evidence for the stereotype threat explanation of the achievement gap in mathematics between men and women. They concluded that the relevant stereotype threat research has many methodological problems, such as not having a control group, and that the stereotype threat literature on this topic misrepresents itself as "well established".

They concluded that the evidence is in fact very weak.

Beneath the Mask: An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 8th Edition

Jussim demonstrated that, using the same technique to control for prior temperatures, he could cause Nome, Alaska and Tampa, Florida to appear to have nearly the same average temperature. From Flore, P. Great Ideas of Personality Includes information on research programs, journals, and professional societies, as well as a glossary and self-quiz for students.

Contains information for students and links to other relevant sites. Perhaps we do. One psychologist suggested that we can get a good idea of its meaning if we examine our intentions whenever we use the word I Adams, When you say I, you are, in effect, summing up everything about yourself—your likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths and weaknesses. Personality derives from the Latin word persona, which refers to a mask used by actors in a play.

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It is easy to see how persona came to refer to outward appearance, the public face we display to the people around us. Based on its derivation, then, we might conclude that personality refers to our external and visible characteristics, those aspects of us that other people can see.

But is that all we mean when we use the word personality? Are we talking only about what we can see or how another person appears to us? Does personality refer solely to the mask we wear and the role we play? Surely, when we speak of personality, we refer to more than that.

The word encompasses a host of subjective social and emotional qualities as well, ones that we may not be able to see directly, that a person may try to hide from us, or that we may try to hide from others. Enduring and Stable Characteristics We may also, in our use of the word personality, refer to enduring characteristics. We assume that personality is relatively stable and predictable.

Although we recognize, for example, that a friend may be calm much of the time, we know that he or she can become excitable, nervous, or panicky at other times. Thus, our personality can vary with the situation. Yet although it is not rigid, it is generally resistant to sudden changes.

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In the s a debate erupted within psychology about the relative impact on behavior of such enduring personal variables as traits and needs, versus variables relating to the situation see Mischel, , And so the issue was resolved by accepting an interactionist approach, agreeing that enduring and stable personal traits, changing aspects of the situation, and the interaction between them must all be considered in order to provide a full explanation for human nature.

We see similarities among people, yet we sense that each of us possesses special properties that distinguish us from all others. Thus, we may suggest that personality is an enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations. To achieve more precision, we must examine what each personality theorist means by the term. Ethnic and Gender Issues in Personality The personality theorists we discuss in this book offer diverse views of the nature of the human personality.

There was nothing unusual about this situation, given the period during which most of these researchers and theorists were developing their ideas.

Even the laboratory rats were white. Further, the majority of the patients and subjects were men. None of the theorists stated explicitly that his or her views applied only to males or to Whites or to U.

[PDF] An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 8th Edition Popular Colection

If the world in which people live and the factors that affect their upbringing are so different, then surely as a result their personalities can be expected to differ. They do, as demonstrated by a rapidly growing body of research.

For example, consider a classic study comparing the personalities of Chinese college students in Hong Kong with Chinese students in Canada. In the same study, recent Chinese immigrants to Canada demonstrated a similarly low level of introversion as the Hong Kong Chinese.

Let us note a few examples. A study of stress on the job found that women managers reported more frequent headaches, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and eating disorders than did men managers.

Another study compared the death rates of men and women 45 years after they took various psychological tests. The tests, given in the year , measured vocational interests, degree of masculinity-femininity, and occupational preferences. The average age of the subjects when they were tested was approximately All this attention sounds impressive and it does represent a major advance after years of neglect. However, comparatively less research has been conducted on personality in African and in South American nations than in English-speaking countries or many of the countries of Europe and Asia.

Also, much of the research that has been conducted among these populations has not been widely published in English-language sources. Another problem limiting the applicability of crosscultural personality research is that the majority of studies use college students as subjects; it is questionable whether we can generalize results obtained from college students in the United States to the population as a whole.

In this text we offer research results from a more diverse selection of people.

Studies are cited from more than 40 countries and from a variety of age groups, cultures, religions, and ethnic backgrounds. Assessment in the Study of Personality reliability The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device.

Reliability can be determined by the testretest, equivalent-forms, and split-halves methods. Types of validity include predictive, content, and construct. To assess something means to evaluate it. The assessment of personality is a major area of application of psychology to real-world concerns.

Consider a few everyday examples. Clinical psychologists try to understand the symptoms of their patients or clients by attempting to assess their personalities, by differentiating between normal and abnormal behaviors and feelings.

Only by evaluating personality in this way can clinicians diagnose disorders and determine the best course of therapy. School psychologists evaluate the personalities of the students referred to them for treatment in an attempt to uncover the causes of adjustment or learning problems. Research psychologists assess the personalities of their subjects in an attempt to account for their behavior in an experiment or to correlate their personality traits with other measurements.

Indeed, much of your success in the workplace will be determined by your performance on various psychological tests. Therefore, it is important that you have some understanding of what they are and how they work. Reliability and Validity Assessment techniques differ in their degree of objectivity or subjectivity; some techniques are wholly subjective and therefore open to bias.

The results obtained by subjective techniques may be distorted by the personality characteristics of the person making the assessment. The best techniques of personality assessment adhere to the principles of reliability and validity.

Reliability involves the consistency of response to an assessment device. If you took the same test on two different days and received two widely different scores, the test could not be considered reliable because its results were so inconsistent.

No one could depend on that test for an adequate assessment of your personality. Several procedures are available to determine the reliability of a test before it is used for assessment or research. In the equivalent-forms method, instead of taking the test a second time, the subjects take two equivalent forms of the test. This approach is more expensive and time-consuming than the test-retest method because it requires that psychologists develop two equal forms of the test. In the split-halves method, the test is administered once, and the scores on half the test items are compared with the scores of the other half.

This is the fastest approach because the test is given only one time. Validity refers to whether an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure. Does an intelligence test truly measure intelligence? Does a test of anxiety actually evaluate anxiety? If a test does not measure what it claims to, then it is not valid and its results cannot be used to predict behavior.

For example, your score on an invalid intelligence test, no matter how high, will be useless for predicting how well you will do in college or in any other situation that requires a high level of intelligence.

A personality test that is not valid may provide a misleading portrait of your emotional strengths and weaknesses. As with reliability, validity must be determined precisely before a test is applied. Psychologists use several kinds of validity, including predictive validity, content validity, and construct validity.

From a practical standpoint, the most important kind of validity is predictive validity—how well a test score predicts future behavior. As part of the selection process, you are given a lengthy paper-and-pencil test to complete. If the majority of the applicants over the last 10 years who scored above, let us say, 80 percent on the test became successful astronauts, and the majority of those who scored below 80 percent failed as astronauts, then the test can be considered a valid predictor of performance in that situation.

In establishing predictive validity, we must determine the correlation between a test score and some objective measure of behavior, such as job performance. To determine content validity, psychologists evaluate each item to see if it relates to what the test is supposed to measure. For example, the Sensation-Seeking Scale is a test designed to measure the need for stimulation and excitement. How can we tell if a new test that promises to measure anxiety really does so?

A standard way to determine this is to correlate the scores on the new test with other established and validated measures of anxiety, such as other psychological tests or some behavioral measure. If the correlation is high, then we can assume that the new test truly measures anxiety. Methods of assessment. The personality theorists discussed in this book devised unique methods for assessing personality, ways that were appropriate for their theories.

By applying these methods, they derived the data on which they based their formulations. Their techniques vary in objectivity, reliability, and validity, and they range from dream interpretation and childhood recollections to paper-and-pencil and computer-administered tests. Ideally, multiple assessment measures are used to provide a range of information about a person.

Self-Report Inventories self-report inventory A personality assessment technique in which subjects answer questions about their behaviors and feelings. The self-report inventory approach involves asking people to report on themselves by answering questions about their behavior and feelings in various situations. These tests include items dealing with symptoms, attitudes, interests, fears, and values. Test-takers indicate how closely each statement describes their characteristics or how much they agree with each item.

First published in , the MMPI was revised in to make the language more contemporary and nonsexist. Items were also rewritten to eliminate words that over the years had acquired alternative meanings or interpretations. The revision, the MMPI-2, is a true-false test that consists of statements. These items cover physical and psychological health; political and social attitudes; educational, occupational, family, and marital factors; and neurotic and psychotic behavior tendencies.

Some items can be scored to determine if the test-taker was faking or careless, or misunderstood the instructions.

I am often very tense on the job. Sometimes there is a feeling like something is pressing in on my head. I wish I could do over some of the things I have done. I used to like to do the dances in gym class. It distresses me that people have the wrong ideas about me. The things that run through my head sometimes are horrible. There are those out there who want to get me. I give up too easily when discussing things with others. The MMPI-2 is used with adults in research on personality, as a diagnostic tool for assessing personality problems, and for vocational and personal counseling.

The number of questions was decreased from to , to reduce the time and effort needed to administer it. Both forms of the test have their shortcomings, however, one of which is length. It takes considerable time to respond diligently to the large number of items.

Also, some of the items on this and other self-report personality tests deal with highly personal characteristics, and some people consider the questions an invasion of privacy, particularly when someone is required to take the test to get a job. Nevertheless, despite the length and privacy issues, the MMPI-2 is a valid test that discriminates between neurotics and psychotics and between emotionally healthy and emotionally disturbed persons.

Thus, it remains a highly valuable diagnostic tool.We may think of each of these theorists as contributing pieces to a grand puzzle, which is why we study their ideas, even though some of their concepts are decades old. This suggested that placement in the diagnostic condition significantly impacted African Americans compared with European Americans.

Hall, Calvin S. From Flore, P.

For example, when adults were asked what they thought was the most important thing for children to learn, Researchers Vishal Gupta, Daniel Turban, and Nachiket Bhawe extended stereotype threat research to entrepreneurship , a traditionally male-stereotyped profession. PowerPoint Lecture Slides and electronic transparencies are available on eBank.

For the clinical assessment, both groups improved their performance maintaining the racial difference. It is no exaggeration to say that your personality is one of your most important assets. Empirical studies[ edit ] As of , more than published papers show the effects of stereotype threat on performance in a variety of domains.

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