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A free CCNA tutorial site that closely follows the Cisco CCNA curriculum. Here you can find articles that will help you to study for your CCNA exam. Free CCNA BOOKS. Internetworking Technology Handbook By custom-speeches.com Can be read online or downloaded a chapter at a time as pdf file. This study guide is intended to provide those pursuing the CCNA .. ensuring that data arrives at its destination error-free and in order.


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Principles, Protocols and Practice Tutorial Networking: This layer includes two activities Transmitting data to the Network Interface layers Routing the data to the correct destinations So how this happen?

Internet layer packs data into data packets referred as IP datagrams. It consists of source and destination IP address. Beside this, IP datagram header field consists of information like version, header length, type of service, datagram length, time to live, and so on. The datagram are transported through network using these protocols.

They each resemble some function like. It determines how to route message on the network. Likewise, you will have ICMP protocol.

It is responsible for diagnostic functions and reporting errors due to the unsuccessful delivery of IP packets. The ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for the resolution of the Internet layer address to the Network Interface layer address such as a hardware address.

The image below shows the format of an IP address.

It is responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services. TCP is responsible for the sequencing, and acknowledgment of a packet sent.

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It also does the recovery of packet lost during transmission. Packet delivery through TCP is more safe and guaranteed. UDP is used when the amount of data to be transferred is small. It does not guarantee packet delivery. Network Segmentation Network segmentation implicates splitting the network into smaller networks. It helps to split the traffic loads and improve the speed of the Internet.

Network Segmentation can be achieved by following ways, By implementing DMZ demilitarised zones and gateways between networks or system with different security requirements. By implementing DSD evaluated cross-domain solutions where necessary Why Network Segmentation is important Network Segmentation is important for following reasons, Improve Security - To protect against malicious cyber attacks that can compromise your network usability.

To detect and respond to an unknown intrusion in the network Isolate network problem - Provide a quick way to isolate a compromised device from the rest of your network in case of intrusion.

VLAN Segmentation: VLANs enables an administrator to segment networks. Segmentation is done based on the factors such as project team, function or application, irrespective of the physical location of the user or device. A group of devices connected in a VLAN act as if they are on their own independent network, even if they share a common infrastructure with other VLANs.

The popular device used for segmenting are a switch, router, bridge, etc. Subnetting Subnets are more concerned about IP addresses. Subnetting is primarily a hardware-based, unlike VLAN, which is software based. A subnet is a group of IP address. It can reach any address without using any routing device if they belong to the same subnet. Few things to consider while doing network segmentation Proper user authentication to access the secure network segment ACL or Access lists should be properly configured Access audit logs Anything that compromises the secure network segment should be checked- packets, devices, users, application, and protocols Keep watch on incoming and outgoing traffic Security policies based on user identity or application to ascertain who has access to what data, and not based on ports, IP addresses, and protocols Do not allow the exit of cardholder data to another network segment outside of PCI DSS scope.

Packet Delivery Process So far we have seen different protocols, segmentation, various communication layers, etc. Now we are going to see how the packet is delivered across the network.

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The process of delivering data from one host to another depends on whether or not the sending and receiving hosts are in the same domain.

A packet can be delivered in two ways, A packet destined for a remote system on a different network A packet destined for a system on the same local network If the receiving and sending devices are connected to the same broadcast domain, data can be exchanged using a switch and MAC addresses.

But if the sending and receiving devices are connected to a different broadcast domain, then the use of IP addresses and the router is required. Suppose host A wants to send a packet to host B. Since at layer 2 packets are sent with MAC address as the source and destination addresses. Intrasegment packet routing If a packet is destined for a system on the same local network, which means if the destination node are on the same network segment of the sending node.

The sending node addresses the packet in the following way. The node number of the destination node is placed in the MAC header destination address field. The node number of the sending node is placed in the MAC header source address field The full IPX address of the destination node is placed in the IPX header destination address fields.

Layer 3 Packet delivery To deliver an IP packet across a routed network, it requires several steps. For instance, if host A wants to send a packet to host B it will send the packet in this ways Host A sends a packet to its "default gateway" default gateway router. To send a packet to the router, host A requires to know the Mac address of the router For that Host A sends an ARP request asking for the Mac address of the Router This packet is then broadcast on the local network.

It responds back with the Mac address of the default router to Host A. It can send an IP packet with a destination address of Host B. Now, default router will send a packet to Host B Intersegment packet routing In the case where two nodes residing on different network segments, packet routing will take place in the following ways. In the first packet, in the MAC header place the destination number "20" from the router and its own source field "01".

While in the second packet, in the MAC header place the destination number as "02" and source as "21" from the router. Wireless Local Area Networks Wireless technology was first introduced in the 90's. It is used to connect devices to a LAN. Technically it is referred as Any components that connect to a WLAN is considered as a station and falls into one of two categories. Access point AP: AP transmit and receive radio frequency signals with devices able to receive transmitted signals. Usually, these devices are routers.

It may comprise a variety of devices like workstations, laptops, IP phones, desktop computers, etc. WLAN requires additional information in the Layer 2 header of the frame. Radio frequencies are radiated into the air by antennas that create radio waves. The following factor can influence radio frequency transmission, Absorption - when radio waves bounce off the objects Reflection - when radio waves strike an uneven surface Scattering - when radio waves absorbed by objects WLAN Standards To establish WLAN standards and certifications, several organizations have stepped forward.

Organization has set regulatory agencies to control the use of RF bands. Approval is taken from all the regulatory bodies of WLAN services before any new transmissions, modulations and frequencies are used or implemented. A license is not needed to operate wireless equipment on the unlicensed frequency bands. For instance, a 2. WiFi protocols and The IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standard comprises a family of networking standards that cover the physical layer specifications of technologies from Ethernet to wireless.

The IEEE For instance, It is used for transmission over short distances at up to Mbps in the 2. Similarly, one can have an extension to The below table shows different wi-fi protocols and data rates.

Wi-Fi Alliance Wi-Fi alliance ensures interoperability among The certification includes all three IEEE As a precaution, random wireless clients must usually be prohibited from joining the WLAN.

To counter security threats WEP is used. It delivers security to WLAN, by encrypting the message transmitted over the air. Such that only the receivers having the correct encryption key can decrypt the information. But it is considered as a weak security standard, and WPA is a better option compared to this. TKIP is renewed on a regular basis, making it impossible to steal.

Also, data integrity is enhanced through the use of a more robust hashing mechanism. It is a device that monitors the radio spectrum for the presence of unauthorized access points. WLAN can be implemented in two ways, Ad-hoc mode: In this mode, the access point is not required and can be connected directly.

This setup is preferable for a small office or home office. The only drawback is that the security is weak in such mode.

Infrastructure mode: In this mode, the client can be connected through the access point. Infrastructure mode is categorized in two modes: BSS provides the basic building block of an It is a set of connected BSS. It is dependent on the RF created with variation caused by access point power output, antenna type, and physical surroundings affecting the RF.

Remote devices cannot communicate directly, they can communicate only through the access point. An AP start transmitting beacons that advertise the characteristics of the BSS, such as modulation scheme, channel, and protocols supported. If a single cell fails in giving enough coverage, any number of cells can be added to extend the coverage. This is known as ESA. For remote users to roam without losing RF connections 10 to 15 percent overlap is recommend For wireless voice network, an overlap of 15 to 20 percent is recommended.

Data Rates: Data rates is how quickly information can be transmitted across electronic devices. It is measured in Mbps.

Data rates shifting can happen on a transmission-by-transmission basis. Access Point Configuration: Wireless access points can be configured through a command-line-interface or through a browser GUI. The features of access point usually allow the adjustment of parameters like which radio to enable, frequencies to offer, and which IEEE standard to use on that RF. Steps to Implement a Wireless Network, For implementing a wireless network, the basic step includes Step 1 Validate pre-existing network and Internet access for the wired hosts, before implementing any wireless network.

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Step 2 Implement wireless with a single access point and a single client, without wireless security Step 3 Verify that the wireless client has received a DHCP IP address. It can connect to the local wired default router and browse to the external internet. Troubleshooting WLAN may encounter few configuration problems like Configuring incompatible security methods Configuring a defined SSID on the client that does not match the access point Following are the few troubleshooting steps that may help counter above issues, Break the environment into wired network versus wireless network Further, divide the wireless network into configuration versus RF issues Verify proper operation of the existing wired infrastructure and associated services Verify that other pre-existing Ethernet-attached hosts can renew their DHCP addresses and reach the Internet To verify the configuration and eliminate the possibility of RF issues.

Co-locate both the access point and wireless client together. Always begin the wireless client on open authentication and establish connectivity Verify whether there is any metal obstruction exists, if yes then change the location of the access point Local Area Network Connections A local area network is confined to a smaller area.

Here we will see how a computer on the different network communicates with each other.

It connects at least two networks and forwards packets among them. According to the information in the packet headers and routing tables, the router connects the network. It is a primary device required for the operation of the Internet and other complex networks. Routers are categorized into two, Static: Administrator manually set up and configure the routing table to specify each route.

It is capable of discovering routes automatically. They examine information from other routers. Based on that it makes a packet-by-packet decision on how to send the data across the network. Each device in the network is identified by a unique IP address.Any components that connect to a WLAN is considered as a station and falls into one of two categories. Networking candidates are required to keep themselves updated with the recent technology changes. Our CCNA education is unique because it puts the student in control.

I am amazed at how many times that I've been able to "guess" the correct answer simply because I knew that the other suggested answers could not possibly be right. Thanks for putting this together and sharing it.

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Sangay Yeshi Downloads: To send a packet to the router, host A requires to know the Mac address of the router For that Host A sends an ARP request asking for the Mac address of the Router This packet is then broadcast on the local network. Since at layer 2 packets are sent with MAC address as the source and destination addresses.

But if the sending and receiving devices are connected to a different broadcast domain, then the use of IP addresses and the router is required.

This layer includes two activities Transmitting data to the Network Interface layers Routing the data to the correct destinations So how this happen?

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