INFORME BRUNDTLAND PDF
United Nations Environment Programme,. Dr. Mostafa Tolba, for his valuable, continuous support and interest. Gro Harlem Brundtland. Oslo, 20 March Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future - A/42/ Annex - an element of the body of UN Documents for earth. nal fue la publicación, en , del ya citado Informe Brundtland de la Comi- Los requerimientos que propone el Informe Brundtland para un desarrollo.
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Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report in recognition of former Norwegian An Examination of the Development Path Taken by Small Island Developing States (PDF). (pp. 17–26); Iris Borowy, Defining Sustainable. To view the report in full, click here. Following the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland. Sep 8, Our Common Future / Brundtland Report () Or download a Bookmarked pdf copy of the report from Wikisource. Our Common.
Goberning Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kabeer, N. Gaventa Claiming citizenship: rights, participation and accountability. Londres: Zed Books.
Kane, M. The search for a conceptual framework. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Kenny, M. Planning sustainability. Londres: Routledge. Lafferty, W. Towards sustainable development: on the goals of development - and the conditions of sustainability. Houndmills: MacMillan Press Ltd. Governance for Sustainable Development. The Challenge of Adapting Form to Function. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Lafferty y J. Meadowcroft eds. Lamberton, G. Luke, T. Fischer y M. Black eds. Nueva York: St. Mebratu, D. Sustainability as a Scientific Paradigm. Middleton, N. London: Pluto. Mitcham, C. Technology In Somy, 17 3 : Mitlin, D. Mozaffar, Q. Journal of Development Studies, 3: Myerson, G.
The language of the environment. A new rhetoric. Londres: UCL Press. Naciones Unidas Agenda Conches, Switzerland. Naredo, J. Newman, L. Alimonda comp. Is Capitalism Sustainable? Political Economy and Politics of Ecology. Nueva York: Guilford Publications. Van der Straaten ed. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.
Interpreting the Precautionary Principle. Paehlke, R. Greening Environmental Policy. Londres: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd, pp. Pezzey, J. Pezzoli, K. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 40 5 : PNUMA Redclift, M. Allen ed. Nueva York: John Wiley. Sustainable development: Exploring the contradictions. Nueva York: John Wiley and Sons. Una perspectiva internacional. Madrid: Mc. Graw Hill.
Repetto, R. The global possible: Resources, development, and the new century. Richardson, D. En: S. Barker et al. Environment and development are not separate challenges. Development cannot sUbsist upon a deteriorating environmental resource base. And success in one area.
These problems cannot be treated separately by fragmented institutions and policies. These qualities have often been used constructively to achieve development and environmental progress: They are linked in a complex system of cause and effect.
Failures to manage the environment and to sustain development threaten to overwhelm all countries. Yet at a time when mUltilateral institutions. Some technological advances.
Air pollution and acidification play their part in killing forests and lakes. For example. These stresses all threaten economic development. But this is not enough. Many international economic problems remain unresolved: Developing country indebtedness remains serious. Many countries have increased food production and reduced population growth rates.
Energy policies are associated with the global greenhouse effect. Human progress has always depended on our technical ingenuity and a capacity for cooperative action.
Speeches and statements
The heaviest burden in international economic adjustment has been carried by the world's poorest people. The consequence has been a considerable increase in human distress and the overexploitation of land and natural resources to en.
The trend is towards a decline in multilateralism and an assertion of national dominance. And the notion of an international responsibility for development has virtually disappeared. House of Commons.
The atmosphere carries air pollution over vast distances. Is it realistic to see ourselves as managers of an entity out there called the environment. Economy is not just about the production of wealth.
Hence new approaches must involve programmes of social development. Major accidents. Ecosystems do not respect national boundaries. That choice. Water pollution moves through shared rivers. Many environment-economy links also operate globally.
For instance. When we organize ourselves starting from this premise. It could be argued that the distribution of power and influence within society lies at the heart of most environment and development challenges.
We are now just beginning to realize that we must find an alternative to our ingrained behaviour of burdening future generations resulting from our misplaced belief that there is a choice between economy and the environment. National boundaries have become so porous that traditional distinctions between matters of local.
Charles Caccia Member of Parliament. Soils and other environmental resources suffer in both systems. Each country may devise national agricultural policies to secure short-term economic and political gains. Frolov Editor-in-Chief. We should not only promote the expansion of its material. Society has failed to give the responsibility for preventing environmental damage to the 'sectoral' ministries and agencies whose policies cause it.
The word is often taken to refer to the I. We need new social. In most countries. What is required is a new approach in which all nations aim at a type of development that integrates production with resource conservation and enhancement. The ability to anticipate and prevent environmental damage will require that the ecological dimensions of policy be considered at the same time as the economic.
The concept of sustainable development provides a framework for the integration of environment policies and development strategies.
Mankind is on the threshold of a new stage in its development.. Thus our environmental management practices have focused largely upon after-the-fact repair of damage: But that will not be enough. In the past. No country can develop in isolation from others. But it is fundamental that the transition to sustainable development be managed jointly by all nations. Each nation will have to work out its own concrete policy implications. Long-term sustainable growth will require far-reaching changes to produce trade.
The pursuit of sustainable development requires changes in the domestic and international policies of every nation. Yet irrespective of these differences. Economic growth always brings risk of environmental damage. Sustainable development seeks to meet the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future.
Far from requiring the cessation of economic growth. But the integration of environment and development is required in all countries. No single blueprint of sustainability will be found. And there are peoples here in Brazil. But policy makers guided by the concept of sustainable development will necessarily work to assure that growing economies remain firmly attached to their ecological roots and that these roots are protected and nurtured so that they may support growth over the long term.
It is very important to remember that when the possibilities for life are over. Hence the pursuit of sustainable development requires a new orientation in international relations. The mechanics of increased international cooperation required to assure sustainable development will vary from sector to sector and in relation to particular institutions.
Environmental protection is thus inherent in the concept of sustainable development. World Population and Production: Trends and Outlook New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Statistical Yearbook New York: Prevention Be"ter Than Cure. WMO No. Haqman et al. New York. General Assembly. Poverty and Hunger: Footnotes 11 World Bank.
DOUbling Development Finance: Meeting a Global Challenge. Report of the Secretary General'.. In the chapters that follow we examine these issues in qreater detail and make a number of specific proposals for respondinq to the crises of a threatened future. We confidently believe that the international community can rise. Swedish Red Cross. But it is hope conditioned upon the establishment of a new era of international cooperation based on the premise that every human beinq.
The World Economy: History and Prospect Austin: University of Texas Press. World Resources New York: Basic Books. Norweqian Meteoroloqical Institute. Forestry and Environment. Food Security London: Zed Books..
Trade and Development Report New York: Lehmhaus et al. Sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for a better life. Interpretations will vary.. A world in which poverty and inequity are endemic will always be prone to ecological and other crises. The essential needs of vast numbers of people in developing countries.
Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries. But physical sustainability cannot be secured unless development policies pay attention to such considerations as changes in access to resources and in the distribution of costs and benefits. Even the narrow notion of physical sustainability implies a concern for social equity between generations. Development involves a progressive transformation of economy and society. A development path that is sustainable in a physical sense could theoretically be pursued even in a rigid social and political setting.
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is the major objective of development. It contains within it two key concepts: Living standards that go beyond the basic minimum are sustainable only if consumption standards everywhere have regard I.
Settled agriculture. Though the issue is not merely one of population size but of the distribution of resources. High levels of productive activity and widespread poverty can coexist. But ultimate limits there are.
This need not happen. An expansion in numbers can increase the pressure on resources and slow the rise in living standards in areas where deprivation is widespread.
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Perceived needs are socially and cUlturally determined. The accumulation of knowledge and the development of technology can enhance the carrying capacity of the resource base.
Yet many of us live beyond the world's ecological means. Meeting essential needs depends in part on achieving full growth potential. Growth has no set limits in terms of population or resource use beyond which lies ecological disaster. Different limits hold for the use of energy. Many of these will manifest themselves in the form of rising costs and diminishing returns. Large sections of the population may be marginalized by ill-considered development.
Hence sustainable development requires that societies meet human needs both by increasing productive potential and by ensuring equitable opportunities for all. Today's interventions are more drastic in scale and impact. The direction of technological developments may solve some immediate problems but lead to even greater ones. A society may in many ways compromise its ability to meet the essential needs of its people in the future. At a minimum. But growth by itself is not enough.
The raw materials and energy of production processes I. The loss of plant and animal species can greatly limit the options of future generations.
But most renewable resources are part of a complex and interlinked ecosystem. We will succeed or fail together. A forest may be depleted in one part of a watershed and extended elsewhere. So-called free goods like air and water are also resources. We now know that what unites us is vastly more important than what divides us.
In general the rate of depletion should take into account the criticality of that resource.
As for non-renewable resources. Development tends to simplify ecosystems and to reduce their diversity of species. We recognize that poverty. And species. But this does not mean that such resources should not be used. Thus land should not be degraded beyond reasonable recovery. In general. Arriving at a commonly accepted definition of 'sustainable development' remains a challenge for all the actors in the development process.
With minerals and fossil fuels. Economic growth and development obviously involve changes in the physical ecosystem. Every ecosystem everywhere cannot be preserved intact. Sustainable development requires that the rate of depletion of non-renewable resources should foreclose as few future options as possible. Sustainable development has been described here in general terms. How are individuals in the real world to be persuaded or made to act in the common interest?
The answer lies partly in education. Traditional social systems recognized some aspects of this interdependence and enforced community control over agricultural practices and traditional rights relating to water. Ecological interactions do not respect the boundaries of individual ownership and political jurisdiction. The rest comes out as wastes. This enforcement of the 'common interest' did not necessarily impede growth and expansion though it may have limited the acceptance and diffusion of technical innovations.
Local interdependence has. A forest may be destroyed by excessive felling because the people living there have no alternatives or because timber contractors generally have more influence than forest dwellers.
In essence. Sustainable development requires that the adverse impacts on the quality of air. Yet with this surge of technical progress.. But many problems of resource depletion and environmental stress arise from disparities in economic and political power.
An industry may get away with unacceptable levels of air and water pollution because the people who bear the brunt of it are poor and unable to complain effectively. But the gains from trade are unequally distributed. Energy policies in one jurisdiction cause acid precipitation in another. In the same way. The enforcement of common interest often suffers because areas of political jurisdictions and areas of impact do not coincide. But each is unwilling to assume that others will behave in this socially desirable fashion.
If economic power and the benefits of trade were more equally distributed. It is not that there is one set of villains and another of victims. The fishing policies of one state affect the fish catch of another.
Communities or governments can compensate for this iSOlation through laws. Interdependence is not simply a local phenomenon. Because it is only free people. Well-enforced laws and strict liability legislation can control harmful side effects.
See Chapter 3. Most important. Denying people rights and peoples' interests is pushing us to a situation where it is only the poverty that has a very prosperous future in Africa.
No supranational authority exists to resolve such issues. All would be better off if each person took into account the effect of his or her acts upon others. There are growing global and regional pollution effects.
And it is our hope that your Commission. Rapid growth in production has extended it to the international plane. The differing capacities of exploiters to commandeer 'free' goods. This chapter concerns itself with national strategies.
The required reorientation in international economic relations is dealt with in Chapter 3. As a system approaches ecological limits. When mineral resources become depleted. This will require policy changes in all countries.
Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios
When urban air quality deteriorates. Thus when a watershed deteriorates. Critical objectives for environment and development policies that follow from the concept of sustainable development inclUde: An inequitable landownership structure can lead to overexploitation of resources in the smallest holdings. Many problems arise from inequalities in access to resources.. This is seldom the case. The search for common interest would be less difficult if all development and environment problems had solutions that would leave everyone better off..
The world must quickly design strategies that will allow nations to move from their present. A revival of Latin American growth depends on the resolution of this crisis. It seems unlikely that. See Box Attaining a minimum level of growth in Africa requires the correction of short-term imbalances. Given current population growth rates. Reviving Growth Are these orders of magnitude attainable? The record in South and East Asia over the past quarter-century and especially over the last five years suggests that 5 per cent annual growth can be attained in most countries.
In Latin America. As indicated earlier. It is therefore essential that the stagnant or declining growth trends of this decade be reversed.
The medium-term prospects for industrial countries are for growth of per cent. India and China. Growth must be revived in developing countries because that is where the links between economic growth. While attainable growth rates will vary.
A necessary but not a sUfficient condition for the elimination of absolute poverty is a relatively rapid rise in per capita incomes in the Third World. Poverty reduces people's capacity to use resources in a sustainable manner. Most such absolute poverty is in developing countries. Yet developing countries are part of an interdependent world economy.
In Africa. So with per capita national income growing only at 1 per cent a year. If income is redistributed in favour of the poor. The number of years required to bring the poverty ratio down from 50 to 10 per cent ranges from: Consider the case in which 25 per cent of the incremental income of the richest one-fifth of the population is redistributed equally to the others.
The percentage of the population below that line will depend on per capita national income and the manner in which it is distributed. How quickly can a developing country expect to eliminate absolute poverty? The answer will vary from country to country.
The Brundtland Report ’Our Common Future’
In each case. In this case. This is a fair representation of the situation in many low-income developing countries. Consider a nation in which half the population lives below the poverty line and where the distribution of household incomes is as follows: The poverty line is that level of income below which an individual or household cannot afford on a regular basis the necessities of life.
The assumptions here about redistribution reflect three judgements. It requires a change in the content of growth. In all countries. The costs of regenerating the forest are not taken into account. Similar incomplete accounting occurs in the exploitation of other natural resources.
These changes are required in all countries as part of a package of measures to maintain the stock of ecological capital.
Yet if developing nations focus their efforts upon eliminating poverty and satisfying essential human needs. Changing the Quality of Growth I Income distribution is one aspect of the quality of growth. Thus a reorientation of international economic relations will be necessary for sustainable development. This is rarely done in either developed or developing countries..
Such growth rates could be environmentally sustainable if industrialized nations can continue the recent shifts in the content of their growth towards less material. As industrialized nations use less materials and energy. The process of economic development must be more soundly based upon the realities of the stock of capital that sustains it. Sustainable development involves more than growth.
Hence the very logic of sustainable development implies an internal stimulus to Third World growth. Thus figuring profits from logging rarely takes full account of the losses in future revenue incurred through degradation of the forest.
It must also work to remove disabilities from disadvantaged groups. Yet it is not enough to broaden the range of economic variables taken into account.
As demand increases. Relying more on smallholder cUltivation may be slower at first. The net result is that the demand for food. A drought may force farmers to slaughter animals needed for sustaining production in future years.
In the long run.. A drop in prices may cause farmers or other producers to overexploit natural resources to maintain incomes. Thus the abandonment of a hydro project because it will disturb a rare ecological system could be a measure of progress. Changing the quality of growth requires changing our approach to development efforts to take account of all of their effects. A development path that combines growth with reduced vulnerability is more sustainable than one that does not. Economic development is unsustainable if it increases vulnerability to crises.
But vulnerability can be reduced by using technologies that lower production risks. As people advance materially. The most urgent problem is the requirements of poor Third World households. Though the focus at present is necessarily on staple foods. The most basic of all needs is for a livelihood: All too often poverty is such that people cannot satisfy their needs for survival and well-being even if goods and services are available.
The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is so obviously an objective of productive activity that it may appear redundant to assert its central role in the concept of sustainable development. Energy is another essential human need. In Asia and Latin America. Between and the labour force in developing countries will increase by nearly million. More food is required not merely to feed more people but to attack undernourishment.
Economic development can accelerate social development by providing opportunities for underprivileged groups or by spreading education more rapidly. Meeting Essential Human Needs Money spent on education and health can raise human productivity.
For the developing world to eat. But increased food production should not be based on ecologically unsound production policies and compromise long-term prospects for food security. The principal development challenge is to meet the needs and aspirations of an expanding developing world population.
In industrial countries. The issue. A similar argument applies within countries. A child born in a country where levels of material and energy use are high places a greater burden on the Earth's resources than a child born in a poorer country. This is a fraction of the household energy consumption in industrial countries.
The sustainability of development is intimately linked to the dynamics of population growth. The total population of the industrialized world could increase from its current 1. The linked basic needs of housing.
The greater part of global population increase will take place in developing countries. Hence the challenge now is to quickly lower I. Planners must find ways of relying more on supporting community initiatives and self-help efforts and on effectively using low-cost technologies. So maybe the environmental organizations should step in and look for ways to prevent this kind of destruction. Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population Deficiencies in these areas are often visible manifestations of environmental stress.
See Chapter 9. In the Third World. Kennedy Nj iro Student. Similar processes are now at work in developing countries. UN projections suggest that by the first decade of the next century. Thus the development of smaller urban centres needs to be encouraged to reduce pressures in large cities. Population growth in developing countries will remain unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas. In fact. Rising levels of income and urbanization and the changing role of women all played important roles.
A growing proportion of city-dwellers rive in slums and shanty towns. Major changes in policies will be needed to cope with the industrial world's current high levels of consumption. Shortages of housing. Developing-country cities are growing much faster than the capacity of authorities to cope.
Thus more manageable cities may be the principal gain from slower rates of population growth. Birth rates declined in industrial countries largely because of economic and social development. Nearly 90 per cent of the increase in the developing world will take place in urban areas. Population policies should be integrated with other economic and social development programmes. These should be recognized and encouraged. But time is short.
Urbanization is itself part of the development process. Further deterioration is likely. If needs are to be met on a sustainable basis the Earth's natural resource base must be conserved and enhanced.
The challenge is to manage the process so as to avoid a severe deterioration in the quality of life. Solving the impending urban crisis will require the promotion of self-help housing and urban services by and for the poor. The pressures on agricultural land from crop and livestock production can be partly relieved by increasing productivity. The conservation of agricultural resources is an urgent task because in many parts of the world cultivation has already been extended to marginal lands.
It is part of our moral obligation to other living beings and future generations. The ultimate limits to global development are perhaps determined by the availability of energy resources and by the biosphere's capacity to absorb the by-products of energy use.
Future increases in productivity. Programmes to protect the incomes of farmers.
The Journal of „Lucian Blaga“ University of Sibiu
Pressure on resources increases when people lack alternatives. The sustainable yield from these stocks may well fall short of demand. These alternatives can be promoted only by an agricultural policy based on ecological realities. Land use in agriculture and forestry must be based on a scientific assessment of land capacity. Development policies must widen people's options for earning a sustainable livelihood.
Hence it will be necessary to turn to methods that produce more fish. But short-sighted. Ecologically more benign alternatives are available. In a hilly area. See Chapter 5. These resources must be conserved and enhanced to meet the needs of growing populations..
Additionally, a semi-structured interview was designed and conducted in a specific export company. The results indicate that performance is strongly oriented towards economic goals and that the social and environmental aspects of sustainability are not prioritized. In conclusion, one can claim that there is an imbalance among the three dimensions of sustainability within the companies studied, with performance primarily focusing on financial and economic indicators.
Keywords: Sustainability ; Performance ; Export businesses 1. Accinelli E. Akkerman R. Quality, safety and sustainability in food distribution: a review of quantitative operations management approaches and challenges. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. On Jacobo, C. Mexico, D. F: Editorial Fontamara. Caldelli A. Management information system - a tool for corporate sustainability. Jurnal od Bussines Ethics. Caldera, D.
En busca del desarrollo humano sustentable. On Morales, E. Dimensiones, retos y discusiones.Lehmhaus et al. Settled agriculture. My reflections and perspective were also based on other important parts of my own political experience: Extending cultivation onto steep slopes is increasing soil erosion in many hilly sections of both developing and developed I The genetic material in wild species contributes billions of dollars yearly to the world economy in the form of improved crop species.
United Nations. In their place emerged a common concern for the planet and the interlocked ecological and economic threats with which its people. Annexe 1.