OSHA TECHNICAL MANUAL PDF
Alert: Due to routine maintenance on the OSHA website, some pages are temporarily unavailable. To report an emergency, file a complaint with OSHA or ask a. The OSHA Technical Manual (OTM) provides technical information about workplace hazards and controls to OSHA's Compliance Safety and Health Officers. Labor Manual Series (DLMS) 4, Chapter , DOL Safety and. Health Program. Action Offices: Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management.
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OSHA Technical Manual Section III. 2. C. Advanced composites have been identified as an important growth sector in U.S. manufacturing. This identification has. OSHA Technical Manual, Section II. 2 duties. OSHA and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) validated sampling and analytical. OSHA's technical Guidance Manual is available here free, to view, print or download!.
Indoor Air Quality. Maryland Public Schools. McLellan, R. The Health Hazards of Office Work. Toxic Substances Journal 5 3: Samet, J. Parts I and II. American Review of Respiratory Disease Wadden, R. Indoor Air Pollution. Walsh, P. CRC Press, Inc. The combined effects of multiple, low-level air contaminants have not been investigated thoroughly and may be a cause of the problem.
In a recent NIOSH document, Stress Management in Work Settings, occupational stress is discussed in terms of assessment methods, stress management, and programs and training necessary to reduce occupational stress.
The synergistic effect of multiple stressors appears to indicate that building-related problems may be more than an air quality problem. The combined effect of these multiple stressors may interact with employees and could result in acute adverse emotional or physical reactions.
In the short term, these reactions may lead to decreased productivity, absenteeism, and high turnover rates and if prolonged may lead to a variety of illnesses including hypertension, coronary heart disease, ulcers, alcoholism and mental illness.
These office-related health problems can be evaluated by a consultant through employee interviews, analysis of job demands, and training employees. The following potential problems may need to be addressed:. Physical hazards including noise from nearby sources such as air conditioning systems and printers, inadequate lighting, stress from the operation of video display terminals VDT's , vibration sources, extremes of heat, cold and humidity, drafts, and poor air circulation.
Ergonomic problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome or inflammatory disorders of the tendons and joints of keyboard operators due to tasks requiring repetitive motions. Proper design of fixed work stations where employees are required to perform repetitive tasks includes proper lighting to prevent glare, maintaining temperature and humidity in a comfortable range with minimum temperature variations, maximum flexibility in work station design including adjustable chair, keyboard, and screen height, and a work-rest regimen that allows breaks to reduce psychological distress.
Reduction of job stress by: Formaldehyde 0. DPP Differential pulse polarographic. Meter Calibrated, direct reading meter available through laboratory, HRT, or area office. See individual manufacturer's literature for information on interferences to the screening or sampling method.
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Search inside document. Bibliography List of Appendices: Sampling and Analytical Methods I. Introduction A. Causal Factors Modern office buildings are generally considered safe and healthful working environments. Incidence 1. In approximately indoor air quality investigations in the last decade, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH found that the primary sources of indoor air quality problems are: Recommended Ventilation Rates 1.
Types of Building Problems Employee complaints can be due to two types of building problems: Acetic Acid Sources: Carbon Dioxide Sources: Carbon Monoxide Sources: Formaldehyde Sources: Nitrogen Oxides Sources: Ozone Sources: Radon Sources: Asbestos Sources: Synthetic Fibers Sources: Tobacco Smoke Sources: Investigation Guidelines A.
Employer and Employee Interviews 1. Sampling Instrumentation and Methods A. Low Contaminant Levels 1. General Screening Use screening techniques to determine the potential sources that may require more sensitive and accurate evaluation or may require action as described in Section E, depending upon professional judgment.
NIOSH recommendations: EPA Recommendations8 for the results of screening samples: Contamination indicators: Miscellaneous Airborne Contaminants 1. Engineering Recommendations 1. Administrative and Work Practice Recommendations Recommendations include programs that change the behavioral patterns of occupants.
Meyer, B. The following potential problems may need to be addressed: This table is best viewed on tablets, notebooks, and desktop computer screens. Fadzhil Amran. Daniel Mochizuki. Amit Mendiratta.
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ANSI Z These were derived by normalizing the power or pulse energy data derived from biological research studies relative to a defined limiting aperture. For example, in the visible and near-infrared spectra, the limiting aperture is based upon the diameter of a fully dilated pupil of the human eye, 7 mm. The area of a 7-mm pupil is 0. Hence, the irradiance limit for long-term ocular exposure is computed by dividing the AEL value of 0.
This yields the worst-case MPE value of 1.
OSHA Adds New Chapter On NOISE to Technical Manual
Environmental factors e. If a WBGT meter is not available or if the assessment is for hazards that may have been present in the past e.
An effective heat-related illness prevention program will describe the employer's policy for when and how often in the workday to measure WBGT. NIOSH recommends, in the Criteria for a Recommended Standard , taking environmental heat measurements at least hourly, during the hottest portion of each work shift, during the hottest months of the year, and when a heat wave occurs or is predicted.
WBGT measurements are most reliable when taken at, or as close as possible to, the work area. When a worker moves between two or more areas with different environmental conditions, or when the conditions vary substantially in the work area, assess the heat hazard using representative measurements for the different conditions. WBGT meters have three sensors that input data into a calculation that adjusts the temperature to represent the impact humidity, wind, and radiant heat have on heat strain cooling effectiveness.
Dry-bulb thermometer: Thermometer that measures temperature without impact from other factors. Natural static wet-bulb thermometer: Wetted thermometer used to measure sweat's effectiveness in cooling the body. It represents increased sweat evaporation potential when wind speed increases, and decreased sweat evaporation potential when there is more moisture in the air.
Black globe thermometer: Thermometer with hollow copper sphere painted on the outside with a matte black finish to measure the radiant energy from direct sunlight or other sources e.
Some meters will also measure WBGT without the need to wet a bulb to determine wind and humidity adjustments see Figure 3. The waterless wet-bulb meter is a tested and validated alternative to the traditional natural wet-bulb sensor.
The meter uses a mathematical model to determine the waterless wet-bulb calculation through a combination of dry-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, and air flow sensors. The meter automatically calculates adjusted temperature using the sensor data inputs and programed equations.
There are two different equations depending on whether the measurement is taken indoors i. The data inputs are:. For indoor environments, the meter does not use the dry-bulb temperature since the globe and the dry-bulb should be equal without radiant heat.
The globe temperature is used since it will also detect non-solar radiant heat sources if they are present. Also, for conditions with significant radiant heat source i. For intermittent exposures or exposures at different heat levels throughout a workday, average the temperature over a 60 to minute period, depending on the exposure duration. Using a meter to measure WBGT while physically at the worksite after a heat-related incident could provide an accurate localized perspective on the probability that there was a heat hazard during the incident.
For example, WBGT measurement will capture radiant heat and wind reduction impacts from worksite structures or heat sources that historic weather from a remote location may not represent. Consider the following when measuring WBGT post incident to determine the potential heat hazards at the time of an incident:. The calculator uses an outdoor wet bulb globe temperature model described by Dr. James C. Liljegren in August The calculator is available as a downloadable zip file at http: If installing this software on a federal agency computer, coordinate with your system administrator.
The ANL WBGT Calculator, which is copyrighted, requires users to follow the open source license redistribution contingencies included as an appendix in this chapter. A calculated WBGT is more accurate when the data source e. If time, date, longitude, latitude or barometric pressure is not accurate, then the WBGT calculation adjustments will not be accurate. Using the most conservative values when weather data is unknown will provide a baseline understanding about heat stress in the environment under the best possible conditions for that day.
Ben Jemaa, et al. The NWS will provide certified weather data. Just send a request that includes data for two days prior to the event, specific daily forecasts, alerts and special weather statements, including heat waves or high heat indices notifications to:. Weather data is available for current conditions and historic conditions through the National Weather Service or the following other sources:.
The ACGIH metabolic work rates represent impacts to the body core temperature from the heat produced internally as exertion increases. Select a work category in Table 3 that best represents the workload using the examples as a guide. If different work activities are planned for the day, using the heaviest workload activity to determine the estimated metabolic rate MR est will indicate if it is possible the workers exposure will exceed the TLV or AL without controls.
Using the lowest expected work load will indicate if other controls are necessary to reduce exposure for any work activity i. Multiply the metabolic rate from Table 3 by the ratio of the workers body weight to 70 kg lbs to determine the MR est. Figure 4. The TLV is the temperature at which there is a heat hazard present for an acclimatized worker and the AL is the temperature at which there is a heat hazard present for a non-acclimatized worker.
Once these limits are reached, either through environmental factors or workload, controls are necessary to prevent heat-related illness. However, if the same worker in the same environment increases activity to fast-pace walking W the exposure will be above the TLV. These tables are more conservative than the TLV or AL and are not intended to prescribe work and recovery periods.
Detailed job hazard analyses and physiological monitoring should be used for these cases rather than these screening criteria. The following is an example using the WBGT Calculator post-incident to determine if there was potentially a heat hazard present during an incident. Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments. As thoroughly as possible, determine if there were heat hazards present in the following example.
In Toledo, Ohio, on June 8, , at 4 pm, a year-old male landscaper mowing-assistant collapsed and died of heat stroke after a day of caring for residential lawns [NIOSH ]. Post-incident interviews indicate the worker complained of feeling light-headed and short of breath two hours before his death, but he refused assistance offered to him by his partner. Others said that the worker was on medication that had a warning about exposure to extreme heat, and this might have interfered with body temperature regulation.As thoroughly as possible, determine if there were heat hazards present in the following example.
These office-related health problems can be evaluated by a consultant through employee interviews, analysis of job demands, and training employees. In approximately indoor air quality investigations in the last decade, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH found that the primary sources of indoor air quality problems are:.
The worker's two pairs of work pants fall under the double layer woven clothing in Table 2; therefore, the Clothing Adjustment Factor CAF is 3.
Action Information Responsible Offices. Collect screening samples using detector tubes or direct reading instruments. The calculator is available as a downloadable zip file at http: If ventilation is turned off during weekends or other periods, ensure that system is on so that contaminant concentrations are sufficiently diluted prior to occupancy.
Training should include information about recognizing heat-related illness symptoms; proper hydration e.
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