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All these CSS layout techniques rely on three basic concepts: positioning, floating, and CSS MASTERY: ADVANCED WEB STANDARDS SOLUTIONS. Advanced Web Standards Solutions. CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions, Third Edition. Andy Budd Emil Björklund. Books to read. Contribute to skyhacker2/books development by creating an account on GitHub.

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_Ch00 1/11/06 PM Page i. CSS Mastery Advanced Web Standards Solutions Andy Budd with Cameron Moll and Simon Collison _Ch00 1/11/ /keybase/public/forloop/dev/ Download Raw. This file was signed by: forloop. markphd. Who is also provably: isprototypeofme. Using the. Name: CSS Mastery, 3rd Edition Format: PDF CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions is your indispensable guide to cutting-edge CSS.

When it comes to using these measurements for padding or margins on the top and bottom sides of an element. This can be used in a number of interesting ways to pull elements in and out of positions of the page. It is also possible to cause an element to generate no box at all by setting its display property to none. It is possible to change the type of box generated by using the display property. Assuming the markup is the same as in the previous example.

If you do need to set a default height measurement for some reason. The box. You can use any measurement of length like pixels. People often refer to elements such as p. That seems only logical at first—however. As the name suggests. Unless specified.

By applying the values table. The important takeaway is that inline-level boxes and block-level boxes are still fundamental to the default behavior of HTML elements. When you use table markup the table. The horizontal box formed by one line of text is called a line box.

Inline boxes are laid out in a line horizontally. Their horizontal spacing can be adjusted using horizontal padding. The inline components inside a paragraph block box You can also set the display property of an element to be inline-block. The only way you can alter the dimensions of a line box is by changing the line height. Block-level boxes will appear vertically one after the other. This division between outer and inner display modes seen across both inline-block.

It is also possible to set the display property of other elements so that they adopt the layout behavior of tables. Margin collapsing is a relatively simple concept. You cannot style anonymous block boxes or line boxes directly. When two elements are above one another. In practice. Each line of text forms an anonymous line box. A similar thing happens with the line boxes of text inside a block-level element.

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The height of this margin will equal the height of the larger of the two collapsed margins. Most boxes are formed from explicitly defined elements. Before After Content area Content area margin-bottom: Margin Collapsing When it comes to normal block boxes. Say you have a paragraph that contains three lines of text. Say you have an empty element with a margin but no border or padding.

In this situation. Before After margin-top: Margins collapse to maintain consistent spacing between elements Margin collapsing only happens with the vertical margins of block boxes in the normal flow of the document. The containing block of an element depends on how the element is positioned. With margin collapsing.

CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions

Without margin collapsing. Margins between things like inline boxes. By default. This changes when you change the element to have a positioning model of absolute or fixed. Without Margin Collapsing With Margin Collapsing The space between paragraphs is The space between paragraphs is double the space at the top.

Containing Blocks The concept of what gives an element its containing block is important because it decides how various properties are interpreted. If the element has a static position same as no position property declared or a relative position.

Margin collapsing may seem strange at first. This means that the space between paragraphs will be double the space at the top of the page. Relatively positioning an element With relative positioning.

You can then shift the element relative to its starting point by setting a vertical or horizontal position. Absolute Positioning Relative positioning is actually considered part of the normal-flow positioning model. By contrast. If you set the top position to be 20 pixels. Setting the left position to 20 pixels. As with relatively positioned boxes. There are various intricacies to take into account when stacking items with z-index: This allows you to create floating elements that always stay at the same position in the window.

Many sites use this technique to keep parts of their navigation in view at all times. This is also known as the initial containing block.

Because absolutely positioned boxes are taken out of the flow of the document. If the element has no positioned ancestors. This can help improve usability because the user never has to look far to get back to an important part of the interface.

Although absolute positioning can be a useful tool for laying out elements of your pages. You can control the stacking order of these boxes by setting a numeric property called z-index.

This gives you a great deal of flexibility. As we have become more proficient with other layout techniques in CSS. The higher the z-index. You can literally position an element anywhere on the page. Fixed Positioning Fixed positioning is a subcategory of absolute positioning. The top bar and side navigation on the Google Developer documentation stays fixed as you scroll down Floating Another important visual model is the float model. Its width will also shrink to the smallest width needed to contain its content.

A floated box can be shifted either to the left or the right until its outer edge touches the edge of its containing block or another floated box. If you float all three boxes to the left. Box 1 is shifted left until it touches its containing block. Example of elements being floated left If the containing element is too narrow for all the floated elements to fit horizontally.

Because it is no longer in the flow. If the floated elements have different heights. Line boxes shorten when next to a float 53 www. No boxes floated Image floated left Line boxes shorten to make room for the floated box Figure In technical terms.

If there is not enough available horizontal space. If a floated element is followed by an element in the flow of the document. When you clear an element. Many people think the clear property simply removes some flag that negates the previous float. Second paragraph cleared Second paragraph cleared Margin added to clear float.

The clear property can be left. This can be useful when using floats as a layout tool. You want this picture and text to be contained in another element with a background color and border. Say you have a picture that you want to float to the left of a title and a small block of text to the right.

You could probably try something like this: Adding a clearing div forces the container to enclose floats 55 www. How do you visually get the wrapper to enclose the floated element? You need to apply a clear somewhere inside that element. Often there will be an existing element you can apply the clear to.

Some rules allow elements to establish their own. The float is removed from the page flow. As we discussed previously. These include the following: When an element has rules that trigger a new block formatting context and is next to a float. Other rules define how the page must automatically contain any floats sticking out at the end otherwise the contents inside the floated element might end up outside of the scrollable area and all block boxes by default have their edge aligned with the left edge of the containing block or the right edge.

We have already seen some of the rules for the inline formatting context—for example. This can be used to re-create the. By applying this to the containing element of your floated elements.

In this case. The way we can do this is to simulate the extra clearing element using the: Formatting Contexts CSS has a number of different sets of rules that apply to how elements interact with each other as they flow horizontally or vertically across the page. This set of rules is called the block formatting context. The element itself still stretches underneath the float as far as it needs to.

The technical name for one of these sets of rules is a formatting context.

CSS Mastery, 3rd Edition.pdf

If only the. Creating a new block formatting context forces. No block formatting context With block formatting context. These represent explicit lengths that are derived from either the surrounding context extrinsic or the content of the element intrinsic.

Both have serious constraints. It also allows you to change the order of elements as rendered on the page. At the time of writing. You would imagine that a robust and flexible layout model would be a key part of a visual presentation tool like CSS. Initially this included adopting data tables because of their useful layout characteristics—despite their bloated markup and inappropriate semantics. Flexbox acts as an upgrade of the normal flow model inline and block.

Flexbox allows you to lay out children of a box either horizontally or vertically and determine the size. The good news is that it is constructed in such a way that you can combine it with other methods. This means layouts are no longer impacted by the source order of HTML. You can also control the space of the gaps between columns and apply border-like visual effects to these gaps. As multi-column layout is more a tool for typography than general layout.

You learned the difference between inline and block boxes. In the following chapters of this book. You were introduced to the various formatting models of CSS.

You also learned about the concept of margin collapsing and how this can affect layout. We will get acquainted with this powerful new module in Chapter 7. Summary In this chapter. It offers complete separation of layout from source order. One element acts as a source of content.

You might also like: CSS3 HTML5 PDF

We will take a closer look at flexbox in Chapter 6. Now that you are armed with these fundamentals. Regions CSS Regions allows you to specify how content flows between elements on a page. Grid layout is not yet widely supported. This module allows you to choose either a set number of columns or a preferred width. Multi-Column Layout The Multi-column Layout Module is a fairly straightforward way of allowing content to flow into separate columns.

As our first example in this chapter. Starting with the body element and working down into more and more specific rules. There are a number of areas we will cover in this chapter: This opens up the possibility for us to learn from hundreds of years of typographic history.

The fact that it still renders as a readable document is due to the default style sheet in the browser. Previous editions of CSS Mastery did not contain a separate chapter on web typography. Our goal is to create a relatively short style sheet to help improve the legibility and aesthetics of the page.. A simple HTML document with no styles yet applied Our simple document contains a couple of headings and some paragraphs of text with some inline elements to enhance the text where applicable.

Links will also still be blue. Text Color Text color is perhaps one of the most basic things we set for a document. Sufficient contrast is crucial for accessibility. Our page as it renders with Avenir Next and Georgia on Safari 9 left vs.

For headings. If neither version of Georgia is available. Georgia is a nearly universally available serif typeface. Should the browser fail to find that. Typefaces can have several different variations for each glyph. You can find a good starting point at http: The serif and sans-serif generic families are probably the most common ones to use for text. Sans-serif simply refers to fonts without serifs. This collection was then used in a mechanical printing press. The sans-serif and serif font families defined at the end of our lists are known as a generic families.

We could also have chosen cursive. Some research around which default fonts are available on various operating systems can help you choose the right stack for your project. The choice of font is also more complex than just whether the font exists or not: If nothing else. Font Size and Line Height The default font-size value in nearly every browser in existence is 16 pixels. In the digital world. A typeface also known as a font family is a collection of shapes known as glyphs for letters. The spec only demands use of quote marks if the font-family name is the same as a generic family name.

The fantasy and cursive generic families are a bit more uncommon. When selecting typefaces for preformatted text such as code examples.

These should not be used for screen styles. Most browsers allow users to zoom the entire page. The rem unit is relatively new. Setting It is a scaling factor. We could have set the font-size to 21px as well. As a fallback for older browsers like Internet Explorer 8 and earlier. As a final flexible measurement. With ems. As the em unit scales based on inherited size.

We could have used percentages in place of ems when it comes to font-size. But it also means that p elements that are children of article elements will have a font-size of 1. Consider the following hypothetical style rules: For our h3 elements.

To get a consistent but flexible value. Some people like to eyeball it. You can play around with a bunch of different preset scales in the Modular Scale calculator at http: The Modular Scale calculator allows you to play with combinations of fonts and mathematical sizing scales 67 www. The sizes have then been rounded to match the nearest pixel size and truncated to three decimal places: This box may be further split in to several inline boxes. Each line of text generates a line box.

The actual glyphs are then placed as to appear vertically balanced somewhere inside the content area. Text is drawn in the middle of the inline boxes. If the font-size is 21px and the line-height is 30px.

This is more commonly known as line spacing. This height can vary significantly between typefaces. Unlike in mechanical type. Constituent parts and technical terms of the inline formatting model We saw the high-level view of inline formatting in Chapter 3. In Georgia. The font-size is subtracted from the total line height.

Glyphs are not necessarily constrained by the content area either: For this reason. Like we said: Setting Line Height When setting line height. As you tweak the value. They all have more or less complicated relationships to the content area and parent line box. The font-size on the body worked out to be 16px. The default value is baseline. As a general rule. In our article example. Just to give you an example. The length and font-size of the text also matters: We set line-height with a unitless 1.

It is possible to set line-height using pixels. Vertical Alignment In addition to line-height. At the end of our article. By leaving out the unit we ensure that the line-height for a particular element is inherited as a multiplier. The default value of normal is mapped to The numeric values are written as even hundreds. The various keywords and values that can be used with vertical-align. Helvetica Neue Bold.

CSS Mastery, 3rd Edition.pdf

Rather than declaring the name of a font variation. Some fonts have numerous variations. Font Weights Next. If there is an item in the line box that is shifted using vertical-align. Helvetica Neue Black. In between those are Medium and Semi-bold or Demi-bold. As the default for headings. The keywords bolder and lighter work a little differently. Note how the top and bottom of the line box are pushed out by the most extreme values. This tag is originally a remnant of presentational markup from early HTML implementations.

Italic style is often used for either emphasis or to distinguish things usually said with a different tone of voice. CSS allows you some control over this.

In our example. The results of artificially bolded fonts are sadly often less ideal. Our h1 is displayed as uppercase 71 www. If a font is missing the desired weight. Font Style Setting the declaration font-style: If not. Proper small-caps variations do this with a greater respect for the letter shapes than just plain shrinking them. Changing the Space Between Letters and Words Changing the space between words and individual characters is often best left to the designers of the typeface.

Browsers have been slow to adopt these. Browsers will attempt to fake this for you if no such font is available. The value you give it specifies how much to add or take away from the default spacing.

One final tweak is to set the abbr element with a slightly smaller line-height. The word-spacing property is seldom used. The following rule would add 0.

CSS does allow you some crude tools to change this though. In typographic terms. There is no exact answer as to what the perfect line length is. A little extra spacing can actually make them easier to read. In the case of our body text. This means we can probably get away with a measure in the higher range. On lowercase text. Should the viewport be narrower than that. In translating this advice to the Web. In the case of very small screens or large screens viewed far away.

Next up.

What we can do is look to the research and historical advice on general rules for line length. Overly long or short lines disrupt the eye movements across the text and can cause the reader to lose their place or even abandon the text altogether.

It depends on the size of the font. Uppercase or small-cap glyphs are much better suited to interpret individually. Applying constraints to line length can be done by setting a width either on elements enclosing the text or on the headings. Having the end edge ragged is not a disaster. Having the left edge of the text straight helps the eye find the next line. Centered text works best for small pieces of user interface copy like buttons or short headings.

For paragraphs following upon paragraphs. The article element is constrained by a max-width of 36em. A paragraph of text where text-align: The Web is a different medium. This is a common technique in printed media. If you use justified text. In a right-to-left language such as Arabic. The type of algorithm used can be altered with the text- justify property. These two logical direction keywords correspond to the writing mode of the text: Different screen sizes.

The text-align property can also use the value justify. Internet Explorer supports the nonstandard value newspaper for this property. With the hyphens property.

Manual hyphenation with soft hyphens For a longer text like an article. The manual mode still respects soft hyphens. HTML entity in your markup. Versions of Internet Explorer before version If you want to activate automatic hyphenation.

Activating automatic hyphenation shows a more straight right rag in Firefox To switch hyphenation off. Trying to use it for other purposes is definitely possible. Gaps between columns are controlled with the column-gap property: The article contents now flow automatically into as many columns as can fit inside the 70em maximum width. If we were to increase the max-width to something like 70em.

So much unused whitespace! Older browsers will then show a single column but still comfortably readable fallback: Fallback Width To avoid excessive line lengths in browsers lacking support for the multi-column properties. We can choose to opt out some elements from that flow.

If you set a column width and a count. If you set only a column count. An element with column-span: The first heading and the last paragraph span all columns Should we instead choose to let an element in the middle of the flow span all columns.

It does make sense to at least try in some circumstances. Zoe Mickley Gillenwater has an article on this and other pitfalls: Some parts fall out of rhythm 80 www. In print design. Some caveats apply though: We also set a common margin-top value for all headings as 1. Some designers swear by these types of harmonious measurements.

Not only does it help the eye movements when scanning the page. Our multi-column layout. The multi-column article. That way. Common web fonts like Helvetica. The important thing is that both of these rules sum to a multiple of the base line height: The fear was this would lead to uncontrollable piracy of their typefaces. Since then. Most foundries that make their fonts available on the Web require certain security restrictions about how they are served.

Initially quite experimentally on small blogs and personal sites. The technology to do this has been available since the release of Internet Explorer 4 in The http: Once this new Vollkorn font has been declared. Hosted services take a huge amount of the pain out of dealing with web fonts and allow you to focus on the design and use of them within your web pages. Choosing a hosted service allows you to license fonts either individually for one-off use or as part of a subscription to a library of fonts.

Commercial services like Adobe Typekit http: This rule allows you to specify the location of a font on a web server for a browser to download. In the previous example.

The font-face rule The key to embedded web fonts is the font-face rule. Font File Formats Although support for web fonts is now very good across all the main browsers. They then host and serve these fonts from their reliable and high-speed servers. These online services handle the different licensing deals with foundries and the difficult job of converting fonts to the correct file formats. The history of font formats is long. If you need support for IE8 and earlier. We have also documented workarounds in the code samples that come with the book.

Optional weight of the font. We are not changing anything about the font. Defaults to normal. Front Matter Pages i-xxii. Setting the Foundations.

Pages Getting Your Styles to Hit the Target. Visual Formatting Model Overview. Using Backgrounds for Effect. Styling Links. Styling Lists and Creating Nav Bars. Styling Forms and Data Tables. When you first start developing sites using CSS, you will come across all kinds of infuriating browser bugs and inconsistencies. It sometimes feels like there are a million and one different techniques to master, spread across a bewildering array of websites. The range of possibilities seems endless and makes for a steep and daunting learning curve.

While most books concentrate on basic skills, this one is different, assuming that you already know the basics and why you should be using CSS in your work, and concentrating mainly on advanced techniques.

This new edition covers all of the CSS fundamentals such as the importance of meaningful markup, how to structure and maintain your code, and how the CSS layout model really works. Unable to download due to copyright issues. You need sign up to post your comment. Hello Ishtiaq.Revised to cover CSS3, the book can be read from front to back, with each chapter building on the previous one.

This modular approach allows different specifications to move at different speeds, and some level 3 specifications, such as CSS Color Level 3, have already been published as recommendations. Are they experimental features that should be used with caution?

You can use any measurement of length like pixels. The nth- child selector acts as a function that can accept a number of different expressions as arguments. The most common of these is the nth-child selector.

The only constant is change is a particularly appropriate clich to invoke here, because whose project doesnt have continually changing requirements, along with constant feature requests and bug fixes?

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