GLOBALIZATION OF WORLD POLITICS PDF
Edited by John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The Globalization of World Politics is an introduction to international relations (IR) and offers comprehensive coverage of key theories and global issues. Keywords: globalization, world politics, international relations. ence—the dark night of the soul, the call for help, the responding voice, the.. clashes with any other item, Rumi wa Understanding Third World Politics. Find all the study resources for The Globalization of World Politics by John Baylis; Steve Smith; Patricia Owens.
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Globalization and Politics: The Effects of globalization on human life aspects
Personal Profile: Politics Trove. Publications Pages Publications Pages. The Globalization of World Politics: Bibliographic Information Publisher: Sep DOI: Read More. The rise of modern international order George Lawson 3. International history —99 Len Scott 4. From the end of the cold war to a new global era? Globalization, through its cultural and informational aspects and the promotion of consuming patterns and value corruption, challenges religious systems Aulakh, Globalization and morals: The immoral character of globalization is becoming even more serious and its negative impacts in this context have different aspects: a.
Globalization has internationalized crimes. Drug trafficking and the trafficking of women and children have become much more difficult to control because of their international character.
Not only crimes are globalized, but also disease Muzaffar, Another aspect of this problem is that most users of Internet in cyberspaces are adults and they waste a lot of time using the Internet for unnecessary purposes.
One of the most dangerous effects of globalization on young people is the immoral usage of the Internet. Yaapar, 3 5. Globalization and international politics: The collapse of the Soviet Union has led to the US control of the global system and international relations.
This provides the US with many opportunities to defend its own national interests globally and to challenge international legitimacy through marginalizing the role of the United Nations and ignoring the international law.
Power and interests become the main characteristics of interstate interactions. Globalization and economy: Globalization as an economic movement has significant effect on national and global economies. Although many trade blocs were established and many industrial and economic nations have emerged as a response to this process, the rules of this process have contributed to the collapse of many national economies.
Piracy is also reinforced by this process. Globalization and science: Although globalization contributes remarkably to new scientific revolutions in many fields including computer and space sciences, these revolutions are accompanied by new sciences that may be used for immoral purposes or to damage the dignity of man whom the Almighty God honors.
Example of these sciences is Genetic Engineering Science, which leads to the emergence of Cloning Science. Globalization and societal structures: The free economy and the development of technology have negative impact on laborers.
This is serous because underprivileged people are expected to revolt against their bad conditions. In this, globalization is a source of social instability and class disparity.
Figure 1 shows the global strata according to World Capitalist-System theory. Globalization, motivated by economic and technologic progress, has also popularized a consumer culture among people due to the flow of goods and products.
These are actually due to the business corporations, which produce the wide array of consumer goods and the media, which advertise them. Globalization and prosperity: Globalization poses serious questions about peace and prosperity: Is there any relationship between the process and peace or prosperity?
Could the implementation of free market principle globally enhance international peace and security or prevents wars, as globalists argue? Prosperity, welfare and economic progress which market economy is expected to achieve could enhance or create some opportunities for political stability; but it does not necessarily ensure peace or social stability.
It is true that market economy has contributed to social and political stability in liberal states and to peace among them, but it does the opposite in many developing countries. Asian economic crisis of is a case in point. The free market forces allowed manipulators to control stock markets and to transfer large amount of money just to maximize their profits, while they were destroying the economies of many Asian countries.
Indeed these activities have destroyed the social structures of those societies, and furthermore, created what might be called potential social unrests in the region. That is why globalization in its current formula does not necessarily ensure social and political stability, and therefore will not lead to a more peaceful world, particularly if market forces continue to dominate the mechanisms of power without restrictions. There is also no guarantee that economic crises and social unrests will not spread to advanced nations.
The largest demonstrations against globalization are usually held in these countries. All these negative aspects of globalization pose real challenges not only to many developing countries as usually emphasizes, but also to all human beings who should, if they have to manage these problems, inject religious, ethical and moral considerations, activities and objectives associated with the globalization process.
Indeed, peoples should globalize themselves within the religious sphere and common values to build a more just world. But with the development of communications and the vast technological revolution brought by liberal systems, it has become an extension to the world capitalism, which seeks to create a liberal global community within which liberal values prevail. If we are to reflect upon the credit and debit sides of the process, we would realize that whatever advantages have come out of it, they are to a large extent accompanied with unintended effects of a process the basic motivation of which is the expansion of market economies, the accumulation of wealth and the maximization of profits.
Therefore, injustices and inequalities associated with this process, and its various consequences on societies, religions, cultures, moral systems, and even sciences, could undermine its claim that it is a harbinger of a new age of global solidarity. In contrast, the process in its current formula could destroy the social systems of less power societies and threaten the future of human civilization.
I. The Concept of Globalization
However, and regardless of our attitudes toward globalization, it is our moral responsibility, as proponents or opponents; individuals or groups; NGOs or governments, to rethink the process of globalization in a manner that enhances its advantages and reduces or eradicates its negatives.
International Political Economy Series. London: Michelman. Barlow, Maude. Catholic New Times, 24 June: 7. Camilleri, Joseph A. Falk, Richard. Religion and Humane Global Governance. New York:Palgrave. Giddens, Anthony. London: Profile Books. In spite of its huge benefits, the revolution is still possessed and controlled by some advanced nations, which might use it as a means of cultural influence and informational hegemony.
Globalization as a Process to Reshaping Human Life With the end of the Cold War, liberalist nations have become more interested in promoting the free trade principle, where market mechanisms must be dominant, and governments must not interfere in economic activities. The economic and military strengths of these nations assist them to pursue this objective through convincing many other countries to conduct structural changes in their economic, political, cultural and social spheres.
As a result, this process has brought profound impacts on the various aspects of human life in many societies, particularly of those involved.
Not only it changes many types of lifestyles, but also involves the bridging of temporal, spatial, and cultural distances in new ways, and that these processes tend to be driven by the revolutions in transport technologies, communications, the internationalization of capital notions of the world system, and post industrialism.
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In spite of all these changes associated with globalization, a large number of peoples and scholars do not trust this process. Some, who may be described as conservatives, are skeptical about the role of globalization in human life, and view it as a phenomenon which may bring destructive effects on all human beings.
Radicalists, on the other hand, argue that the process is not without great benefits to all peoples; its effects may reach all spots of the earth. Still others view this process as any other historical human experience which may have its positive and negative affects.
Yaapar, 2 Regardless of these stands, it is wrong to view the process from an economic perspective only because it is increasingly involving political, cultural and technological fields and is remarkably being reinforced by the huge development of communications and information technologies. Positive and Negative Affects of Globalization The previous introduction shows that globalization has both positive and negative effects on the various aspects of human life. Positive Effects of Globalization There are some positive effects brought with the process of globalization: 1.
In the education field, some of the new communication and information technologies, which are of course linked to the globalization process, have enabled students, researchers and young people in distant and to access ideas and information from the best libraries in the world.
They are able to peruse through libraries in different countries without having to travel. Globalization from this point of view assists people in the dissemination of values related to knowledge, and in the promotion of values related to health care etc. Globalization has made communication much easier and cheaper than before.
The number of subscribers and users of the Internet are now increasing remarkably. The potential for people of different communities, countries, cultures and religions to know and understand one another is greater than ever before. Knowing and understanding each others are very important to promote and establish common values among people of different communities.
Globalization also makes it possible for people to demonstrate their sympathy and compassion for the victims of natural calamities and man-made tragedies all over the world regardless of religions, lands, languages, colors, cultures etc.
Muzaffar, 4. Globalization has also brought to the fore issues such as the rights of women and children. All these aspects promote globally certain common values such as equality, human rights, justice, democracy and moral values. Globalization and culture: Globalization affects human cultures from various perspectives: a.
Globalization represents a challenge to cultural and local languages. This could lead unenthusiastically to marginalizing many local cultures.
Scientific and economic superiority of the US and the flow of information technology assist in imposing certain languages in particular English as a second language in some developing and developed countries, and as a first language in some others. There is no doubt that language has significant impact on cultures and, therefore, the dominance of English could contribute to the emergence of a global and intercontinental culture which may wipe out traditions, customs, and values of many societies and marginalizes their cultures.
Globalization has significant impact on local entities. Its complexity takes decisive dimensions in particular with regard to its effects on labor immigration from the South to the North.
In many cases this problem not only has political reflections, but also social dimensions. For example, when the Algerian football player Zaindeen Zaidan has appeared as a star in the French team in World Cup , French Right Wing started to criticize the presence of non-aboriginal French in the national team Mittelman, At the same time, Algerians in both France and Algeria were so pleased and looked at Zaidan as an Algerian hero, despite the fact that he was born in France and still resides there.
So globalization in this sense is reshaping the identity of many peoples particularly migrants. Globalization and developing countries: Globalization has serious effects on many developing countries: a.
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Although developing countries contribute in away or another to this process, yet they do not yield the benefits of this contribution. In contrast, the process destroys many aspects of life in these societies.
The irresponsible behavior of some multinational corporations toward the environment of those countries, or more dangerously marketing expired products and other illegal goods are examples of this destruction. The widening gap between the North and the South at international level, and between haves and have-nots at national level is another serous aspect of globalization.
In fact, the real test to globalization is through its success in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor at local, national and global levels. Globalization has forced many countries in various parts of this world to regulate to a lower league the most fundamental needs of their peoples Muzaffar, The equitable distribution of food, adequate health care facilities, and the quality of education are no longer priority concerns the political agendas of the governments in these countries.
All these indicate that poor societies in the third world not only remain far away from benefiting from globalization, but also they continue to suffer from its calamities, pitfalls and misfortunes.
It then contributes to laying the foundation of injustices and social inequalities, and moreover preventing the growth of new markets in these countries because they are unable to compete with the advanced markets. Here, competitiveness seems to be unequal and its result under all circumstances remains in favor of the strong and those who control international markets. So instead of filling up the gap between the rich and the poor, globalization in its present formula widens this gap Aulakh, Globalization and religions: Although globalization might benefit religions through the easier exchange of information and different opinions about these religions, it however represents a source of harm to many religious and spiritual values Falk, Globalization, through its cultural and informational aspects and the promotion of consuming patterns and value corruption, challenges religious systems Aulakh, Globalization and morals: The immoral character of globalization is becoming even more serious and its negative impacts in this context have different aspects: a.Within these perspectives, globalization becomes a process of reshaping human life through globalizing certain values which include economic patterns related to free trade, production, consumption and distribution; cultural patterns related to entity, language, and lifestyle; and political patterns related to democratic process and human rights.
Although many trade blocs were established and many industrial and economic nations have emerged as a response to this process, the rules of this process have contributed to the collapse of many national economies. International law Christian Reus-Smit Many international conferences have been held, a large number of approaches have been adopted, and scores of studies has been produced, but not much has been achieved.
In fact, the real test to globalization is through its success in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor at local, national and global levels. Power and interests become the main characteristics of interstate interactions. Instead, as a short and medium-term strategy one should try to inject ethical and moral considerations into some of the dominant economic institutions, activities and goals associated with the process. Globalization has internationalized crimes.
Its aspects, in particular the Internet and multimedia, remarkably contribute to the spread of globalization due to their rapidity, easiness and availability. Therefore, it is important that one not reject it totally.