Politics There A God On The Mic Pdf


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Melle Mel Rakim KRS-One Big Daddy Kane Kool Moe Dee Grandmaster Caz LL Cool J Chuck D Biggie Lauryn Hill Nas Queen Latifah Tupac Kool G Rap Jay-Z. Rapper Kool Mo Dee thrived during hip-hop's nascent years as a vocalist whose tongue-twisting rhymes and speedy delivery put his counterparts to shame. There's a God on the Mic: The True 50 Greatest MCs is a book by the old school hip hop Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.

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us to be God's microphone by advocating on their behalf. Blessed Oscar Romero used the radio to become. God's microphone. Today we can use social media. martyrdom is celebrated March 24 of this year, there was originally a plaque It was as preacher of God's Word that Monseñor Romero made such an .. society, and so he allowed the pulpit of the cathedral to serve as the microphone of the. requirements. Be advised that there may be additional credits required in all programs and AN ACT OF GOD was originally produced on Broadway at Studio. 54 by Jeffrey . show, and approaches an audience member with a microphone.).

Mel recorded a rap over session musician Duke Bootee's instrumental track "The Jungle"; some of Mel's lyrics on "The Message" were taken directly from "Superrappin'". Bootee contributed vocals. Mel would go on to write songs about struggling life in New York City, making it through life in general. Grandmaster Flash split from the group after contract disputes between Melle Mel and their promoter Sylvia Robinson in regard to royalties for "The Message"; when Flash filed a lawsuit against Sugar Hill Records, the factions of The Furious Five parted.

Mel became known as the leader of the Furious Five. The group went on to produce the anti-drug song "White Lines". In , after an 4-year layoff and Flash reunited and released the album On The Strength, but with up-and-coming new school artists such as Eric B. Martin Luther King Jr. Mel performed with Artists United Against Apartheid on the anti-apartheid song " Sun City ", aimed at discouraging other artists from performing in South Africa until its government ended its policy of apartheid.

It sold at all in the US and the UK. Die Hard released an album of the same name in on 7PRecords. The book was re-released in In , Melle Mel attended professional wrestling school.

In , he stated in an interview with allhiphop.


In his acceptance speech, Mel implored the recording industry members in attendance to do more to restore hip hop to the culture of music and art that it once was, rather than the culture of violence that it has become. Kool Moe Dee was released on compact disc in All lyrics written by Moe Dewese. Rakim William Michael Griffin Jr. One half of golden age hip hop duo Eric B.

Eric B. Steve Huey of AllMusic stated that "Rakim is near-universally acknowledged as one of the greatest MCs — the greatest — of all time within the hip-hop community.

Rakim began his career as the emcee of the rap duo Eric B. Is President " in First meeting in , Eric B. They were nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in , although they did not make the final selection. After Rakim responded to Eric B. The first track they recorded—"Eric B.

Is President"—was released as a single on the independent Zakia Records in While its singles attained moderate success, the album performed better on music charts than Eric B. Billboard Pop Albums chart , it has been certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments in excess of , copies in the United States.

Released during the hip hop's "golden age", Follow the Leader was well received by critics and has since been recognized by music writers as one of the most groundbreaking and influential hip hop albums of all time. Featuring a broader spectrum of sounds than the James Brown samples that had defined the initial release, Follow the Leader saw Rakim at his most lyrically fierce, issuing deft and death threats on such tracks as'Microphone Fiend,"Lyrics of Fury,' and the nearly felonious'No Competition.

This album saw the duo's sound develop further, with Rakim adopting a deeper, more aggressive tone of voice, as well as more mature and serious subject matter. Musically, the production ranges from smoother soulful tracks such as " In the Ghetto " to the hard-edged assault of the title track.

Though it could not support singles as popular as the duo's previous albums, it is considered by many to be the duo's most coherent album. It is one. In , the album was selected as one of The Source's Best Rap Albums ; the back cover features a dedication to the memories of Rakim's father William and producer Paul C.

This part of the course has become a favorite moment for the students, not only because they can participate actively in the experiment but also because the exercise is an incredible eyeopener that makes them understand, firsthand and almost instantly, the intricacies of the musical experience.

There are two sections of music in this experiment: The secular selections are all instrumental, i. This avoids any associations with a particular situation. As I play the various excerpts of music, the students all react in some way to the music, but they do so in very different ways.

Their interpretations may vary considerably, according to the basic mood of the music, or the students may not be sensitive to or touched by the music at all. What for some feels invigorating or transcendent, comes across as boring or uninspiring to others. As we examine together the deeper reasons behind these divergences in opinion, we learn that an individual's reaction to music is determined by a certain number of acquired or learned factors.

These factors include one's familiarity with the style, formal or informal education in matters of music, cultural setting and environment, and particular values and beliefs. Associations that come spontaneously with the hearing--such as the remembrance of a mood, event, or situation, or certain gestures and actions that accompanied the first or subsequent hearings of this type of music-- may also need to be taken into consideration.

The classroom experiment reveals that music does not happen in a vacuum but is intimately tied with, and carried by, a given culture or society. Lundin, author of An Objective Psychology of Music, concurs that musical responses are "acquired through one's life history. A large part of anyone's responses are culturally determined.

These conditions refer, not only to one's intimate musical surroundings, but in general to his whole musical culture. We, therefore, include not only the general Western musical culture but also our own family, school, and other intimate sources of musical stimulation.

We may not even react at all to styles that are unfamiliar to us. Music acquires meaning only through context and education. A particular style of music must, then, be understood within the context of the community or cultural group that gives it its meaning. It is also the community or cultural group that determines when an earlier established meaning changes or becomes obsolete. Musical meaning "ceases to be effective when the relationship between a group and the symbol musical language changes in space and time.

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There is no universal way music is appreciated in different cultural settings. In one setting it can be very well received, even applauded. In another setting it may be perceived as inappropriate. Therefore, it is important to learn to decode or understand the meaning of a style within a particular cultural setting. On the other hand, it is just as important not to fall into the trap of quick judgments on value and statements as to the implicit "good" or "evil" nature of a style, chord, melody, rhythm, or instrument.

Some people speak of "good" instruments for worship piano, organ, violin, flute and of "evil" instruments saxophone, guitar, synthesizer, etc.

They forget that it is the context generally associated with these instruments, chords, or rhythms that determines their meaning and evaluation. One would be very hard-pressed to demonstrate that a given chord e. This would be the equivalent of lending the power of good or evil to a letter of the alphabet, a syllable, or even a word without its context.

Good or evil connotations are given to a specific word within a particular linguistic setting, which is just the product of social conventions. If someone addresses me with a four-letter word in Chinese, it will not have any effect on me--I might even interpret it as a compliment if it is said with a smile!

Musical language is not much different from verbal language. The isolated components of a language--letters, syllables, even words--do not carry any moral weight in themselves. They acquire meaning as they are put together into phrases, sentences, and paragraphs, and then they are given significance within a cultural language group.

The interpretation of those meanings must be learned, and the learning process happens within a given cultural setting, determined by the value system of that culture.

It is exactly the same for the musical language. When melodies, chords, rhythms, and harmonies are combined together, they are given a specific meaning within a particular cultural setting; they are then interpreted as happy or sad, elevating or debasing. Every society or subculture develops a concept of what is sacred and what is entertaining, and what is tasteful or vulgar. Expressions of respect, veneration, adoration, and solidarity--sacred or religious attitudes basic to the human race-are shaped according to established value systems.

Every society develops its own verbal and musical languages to translate these concepts. The interpretation of musical content does not primarily happen on the basis of the innate nature and quality of the musical sounds produced,11 but according to the context in which this type of music is created and performed, i.

It becomes difficult, therefore, to judge the content or meaning of a style of music if we are not familiar with its function and meaning within that given society--if we have not learned to understand its meaning in its original context.

This dimension will be dealt with in depth in a separate section. A Lion Book, , p. Bruno Nettl, Excursions in World Music, 5th ed.

Upper Saddle River, N. Pearson, Prentice Hall, , p. Iris M. Yob, "The Arts as Ways of Understanding: Perspectives on Music Education, Estelle R. Jorgensen, ed. University of Illinois Press, , p. Jules Combarieu, La musique et la magie: Etude sur les origines populaires de l'art musical, son influence et sa fonction dans les societes Paris: Alphonse Picard, ; reprint Geneva: Minkoff Reprints, , p. Elizabeth Brown and William Hendee, in their clinical study of reactions to music, came to the same conclusion: Music is a very individual and complex experience" from "Adolescents and Their Music," Journal of the American Medical Association [September ]: For example, in The Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal ed.

Review and Herald Publishing. An erroneous popular myth, for instance, interprets music in the minor mode as being associated with sadness, and music in the major mode as being expressive of happiness.

In reality, the majority of folk music uses the minor mode which actually belongs to modal language both for happy songs or dances, as well as to depict sad situations. This brings up the case of rock music, which will be discussed later see "Excursus: The Case of Rock Music," pp.

This type of music needs to be dealt with separately since it falls more under the category of a music culture than a musical style. The Meaning of Music here are several assumptions about music and its capacity to convey meaning.

Misunderstandings and misconceptions about the issue, lack of information, and oversimplification of the matter have contributed to spread a number of beliefs and convictions, which are then perpetuated from generation to generation, bringing about endless discussion and debate. The purpose of the following reflection is to demystify and clarify some of these misunderstandings and misconceptions. First, we will take a look at the concept of sacred music and investigate what makes a style of music sacred.

Fr Francis’ Homily: You Are God’s Microphone

Then we will look at the issue of aesthetics versus ethics. A number of questions will articulate that section: Is aesthetics equivalent to ethics?

Is there good music and evil music? How does music convey meaning? Where does the real power of music lie?

There's a god on the mic : the true 50 greatest MCs

How can we use music responsibly? What makes a musical style sacred? A good way to provide answers to these questions is to listen to different types of sacred music. I have my students listen to and react to selections of music from different religions, music such as Tibetan Buddhist chanting, Jewish synagogue chanting, religious rap, a South American folk mass, Gregorian and Orthodox chanting, Black spirituals and Black gospel, traditional Protestant hymns, classical sacred selections, etc.

Every selection played was written with the specific intent to convey a religious message--or is at least understood, in popular imagination, to have been so. The sacred character of the music is indicated either explicitly by the words or implicitly by means of the ritual, liturgical, or religious setting in which the music is generally performed.

In my class the listeners' reactions were interesting to observe, especially since they provided clues to the answers we were looking for. Selections in familiar styles were acclaimed with great enthusiasm, pleasure, and personal--sometimes even physical--investment in the experience.

In general, the music played in these excerpts was perceived as conveying some quality more or less related to the concepts of transcendence, grandeur, or majesty.

However, a more detailed analysis of these impressions revealed considerable differences in appreciation. The various reactions covered such diverse and opposite moods as wonder and fright, elevation and boredom, spirituality and entertainment.

Settings evoked by the playing of J. Bach's Toccata in D Minor, for example, ranged from a lofty cathedral to haunted houses, horror movies, and cartoons. It is because of this uncircumscribed character of the musical experience that the works of J. Bach are used indifferently both in Christian worship and satanic worship. Unfamiliar selections, on the other hand, such as Tibetan chants, for instance, were met with bewilderment, incomprehension, or outright laughter.

Less familiar selections, such as Orthodox chants, were often received with indifference. This demonstrates how music loses its sacred character if not perceived as such. It also confirms what was pointed out earlier, namely, that when the music is taken out of its context, it loses its meaning, which, in this case, is its sacred character. It would be difficult to sustain a plea in favor of the sacred character of music inherent in a given musical style.

For music to be understood as sacred, it needs to be accompanied by extramusical elements that lend. It is the religious cultural context, the learned experience, that creates this understanding. On the other hand, compositions that were originally not meant as sacred works have over time become associated with a sacred context.

Handel's oratorio The Messiah had originally been written as a fund-raiser for an orphanage and was initially performed in theaters and by opera singers. Similarly, the saraband, originally a sensual dance imported from Cuba via Spain, had become a slow stylized dance at the time of J. Bach, and in our time is typically played in churches on the organ as a meditative piece for worship.

These are just a few examples of how religious culture can transform a secular piece into a sacred one. These few examples illustrate how difficult it is to determine whether a musical selection has a sacred character or not, especially when there are no words at all or words in a language that is not understood.

The same forces that shape our musical understanding of secular music also shape our understanding of sacred music. The importance of a learned or acquired experience in the understanding of music is again verified. Our religious culture and environment, our beliefs and value systems, and the associations we have formed in regard to certain categories of music all influence our interpretations of musical selections as sacred.

These conventions determine the way music is understood and registered as sacred in the mind of a group of listeners. This understanding, in turn, influences the attitudes and manners in which the music is performed.

There is no such thing as inherently sacred music, neither by the use of a particular instrument or genre nor by a given musical style. Our interpretation of music as sacred is also a learned experience.

Maybe the answer to the question "Is there a sacred style of music? Within each tradition the musical style featured in a religious setting is considered an adequate expression of the religious or liturgical truth and sensitivity. What unites them all in their great diversity is that, within their respective settings, they fulfill the basic purposes and functions of sacred music.

Some of these functions and attributes of sacred music are to convey a theology, to serve as a vehicle for expression and communication, to be defined within a cultural setting, and to delight God. Sacred Music Conveys a Theology This can probably be considered as the main purpose of sacred music, and it should happen in a threefold manner: The music must reflect the character of the god worshipped.

Traditions of sacred music reveal the face or character of their deity or higher power. Within their respective languages the musics will evoke transcendence or immanence, distance or closeness, punishment or love. The God of the Judeo-Christian faiths is a God of beauty, holiness, sovereignty, goodness, righteousness, and truth, but also of love, compassion, and mercy. Such are the attributes that sacred music within the JudeoChristian tradition strives to translate into sound.

The music must speak about the nature of the relationship that exists between the believers and their god. In our listening in class, we discovered relationships of a fearful, trustful, respectful, mysterious, and supernatural nature.

The various musical selections spoke of relationships that involved ecstasy, meditation, blind ritual, emotional response, or cognitive participation through learning and understanding. The nature of our relationships with God in the light of the biblical tradition encourages attitudes such as adoration, trust, love, repentance, obedience, and submission.

The music must tell about the values and beliefs of a particular group. The biblical account teaches us values that affirm Creation and uphold and enhance our relationships with God, our neighbor, and nature.

These are the values that must be conveyed or conveyable by a musical style in order for the music to qualify as sacred music. But the role of sacred music goes beyond carrying truths and values. It also implies a factor of communication. Sacred Music Is a Vehicle for Expression and Communication Music is able to communicate above and beyond verbal expression and to touch the realms of the unutterable. When words are insufficient expression, music still speaks and touches the heart and mind.

Herein lies one of the primary purposes of art in worship. Whether in a secular or sacred setting, music functions as a vehicle for expression and communication, both on the vertical level, that is, our relationships with God, and on the horizontal level, our relationships with fellow worshippers.

A sacred experience not only consists of receiving truths and blessings; it also implies the possibility of a response on the part of the believer, a channel to verbalize the heart's desire. The musical experience creates avenues for wholistic or emotional responses. It engages the believer with his or her whole being and enhances the sacred event. It provides a channel to communicate simultaneously as a community and as an individual. Sacred Music Is Defined Within a Cultural Setting In the face of so much musical variety, it appears that sacred music styles are also defined by conventions.

A religious community needs to determine which musical language belongs to its own cultural setting and which is appropriate to express the values attached to the sacred and supernatural as they are understood within that given culture or subculture. In order to preserve true worship values, it is essential to understand that any discussion of musical style must take place within the framework of a given style category, not among different styles. What is important, however, is to determine whether a particular choice within a given style is appropriate for a worship experience.

The prerogative of the choice of a musical style for worship is not simply a right and privilege for a group or community; it is first and foremost a responsibility. Too often we think of music as a human pursuit for enjoyment, but music was already part of the heavenly experience before the creation of the human universe. The book of Job tells us that the Creation process was accompanied by the song of angels Job As the Redeemer was born, the angels rejoiced with singing Luke 2: It was God Himself who dictated a song to Moses and commanded him to teach the Israelites to sing the law Deuteronomy When we speak about sacred music or worship music, another dimension is added to the musical experience, namely, the sacred, or divine.

There are two partners in worship: God and humanity. In worship, music is performed for God by human beings. The holy is approached in a human language. This creates a constant tension, a healthy tension, between the vertical and the horizontal.

As is true for every component in worship, music also partakes of the tension between the vertical and the horizontal. Any discussion about music, sacred or secular, that happens from a religious perspective, that is, assuming a life in relationship with God, will naturally lead to ethical considerations.

The way this relationship between ethics and aesthetics is commonly understood has given rise to a number of misunderstandings that need to be sorted out in order to facilitate healthy discussion and exchange. Many people will affirm that as they listen to "good" secular or sacred music, they feel elevated in their minds and souls, and it helps them become better and more spiritual people. There is a tendency to "intertwine and even fuse moral and aesthetic judgment,"4 that is, to identify an aesthetic experience with an ethical experience.

Such a perspective assumes that beautiful music is necessarily good music and vice versa, and that the contemplation of something beautiful and artistic or ugly and vulgar has a moral effect on us, i. Music that elevates our minds is not necessarily sacred because of that quality, and music that comes across as cheap or that is performed poorly has nothing to do with religion or morality, but simply with bad taste.

It is important to clarify and understand the particular nature of the aesthetic and the ethical experiences and to distinguish between the two. Consulting an encyclopedia definition of the aesthetic experience reveals the following meaning: The effect includes a heightening of our sensibilities, a refining of our capacities for perceptual and emotional discrimination, and a capacity to respond more sensitively to the world around us. Even though such activities and exercises deal with the realm of the human spirit in their reference to the mind and the senses, and are thus connected with a "spiritual" experience, they do not refer to a religious experience in the etymological sense of the word, namely, as a life connected to God.

It is important to distinguish between an aesthetic spiritual experience and a religious experience; they are not equivalent. Harold Best brings out the difference between the two experiences quite clearly in the following statements: The beauty of the creation is not moral beauty; it is aesthetic beauty, artifactual beauty. Aesthetic beauty lies in the way and the quality with which something is made or said. Truth lies in what is said. Being emotionally moved by music is not the same as being spiritually or morally shaped by it.

The question comes up immediately, then, is it possible that an object, a created thing in. Can a tree or a rock convey moral power, a power to change us for good or evil? Likewise, can a sound, a melody, a rhythm, or a given level of volume carry and convey good or evil?

When we listen to music--to what we commonly call beautiful music, art music-or contemplate some artwork, does this imply that we become better persons? If that is the case, music would have the power to carry moral meaning, i.

Some people have advocated this theory and still do so. It grew out of a legitimate concern for the well-being of the human soul and its preservation from evil, and was then carried and perpetuated through the ages.

These theories reach all the way back to the church fathers and, ultimately, to the ancient Greek philosophers. Indeed, in studying the writings of the early church fathers and the earliest music theorists of the Christian era, as well as some comments on music made by theologians who lived much closer to our time, one is surprised to find a vast correspondence of opinions about the nature and power of music.

Together with other concepts taken from Hellenistic thinking, the Greek theories about the power of music strongly infiltrated and permeated Christian theology and philosophy. There was a common thread of belief in the power of music to affect and change the character, all the way back from John Calvin sixteenth century A. In this sense, music, as a sign of spiritual reality, is able to exert spiritual power in the lives of the believers. In the next pages, we are taking a quick look17 at the ideas that lie at the basis of this theory, namely, the Greek theory of aesthetics, and how it relates to ethics.

The Greek Theory of Ethos The belief in the moral power of art is illustrated by the famous saying of Plato that "rhythm and harmonia18 [in the arts] permeate the inner part of the soul, bring graciousness to it, and make the strongest impression, making a man gracious if he has the right kind of upbringing.

Perfect beauty and goodness could exist only in the ideal world, and the highest endeavor of a human being was to pursue good, beauty, and truth. Art, on the contrary, was understood to be one way to embody--and lead to--this ideal world.

Indeed, artworks were not merely seen as the product of inspiration, applying to the world of senses. They were first of all understood to be expressions of rational, numerical relationships,23 obeying the same mathematical rules that governed the whole universe. It was, incidentally, Pythagoras' discovery of the mathematical ratios of musical intervals that gave rise to the idea that the universe was founded on rational and harmonious principles.

Thus art, and especially music, became a mirror of the cosmic, enabling the human being to participate in the ideal world. Aesthetics beauty and ethics virtue shared not only a similar nature24 but also a common function, namely, to regulate, order, and moderate excessive irrational passions of the human soul.

The human soul the microcosm of the universe had been created as a mirror of the universal soul the macrocosm of the universe and partook of the same laws and properties as the universe. The musician dealt with the irrational emotional part of the soul, allowing it to receive virtue by means of particular modes harmoniai or rhythms. To Plato, the philosopher and the musician shared a common source of inspiration: In Greek thinking, the universe and all of its manifestations were understood as forming harmonious relationships.

These were governed by mathematical laws that demonstrated order, measure, and balance. In the same way, beauty was also defined in terms of mathematical rules, as can be seen in the principle of the golden mean or the mathematical proportions found at the core of the theoretical system of music.

Creating the Chart

Greek sculptor Polyclitus said, "The beautiful comes about, little by little, through many numbers. Both Plato and Aristotle understood virtue as harmony, balance, and measure, that is, an absence of excessiveness.

Bravery was defined as the "capacity to preserve through everything the right and lawful belief as to what is to be feared and what is not"33 and represented the mean middle, average between the two extreme emotions. In that sense, bravery denoted a harmonious and balanced attitude. Sadness and melancholy, even compassion, were considered as lying outside of the accepted norms of "equity" in regard to discretion or temperance. Thus, musical scales that were understood to incline the soul toward these emotions e.

The function of music was to organize "harmoniously" all things. Behavior that did not feature harmony, balance, and measure was considered to be evil. Vice versa, a virtuous action was considered to be beautiful because it demonstrated harmony and balance. Beauty, i. Virtue was intimately tied to aesthetics. What was the process that enabled music, the arts, to have an impact on the human soul?

An essential step in reaching the aesthetic--and therefore ethical--experience in Greek antiquity was through contemplation. According to Plato, during contemplation of works of art architecture, sculpture, paintings, music, drama, etc.

Greek philosophers believed that the physical object in itself stood for the spiritual power. Contemplating the object would then automatically affect the spiritual dimension within the contemplator. The contemplation of works of art such as the statues, which typically represented gods, was primarily meant to elevate the human soul and become a model for it--as we "dwell amid fair sights and sounds, and receive the good in everything, beauty shall flow into the eye and ear.

In a similar manner the contemplation of music, while passing through the sensory aspect of the soul, was able to lift the human soul out of the transitory and accidental character typical of the musical experience onto the permanent and essential level of the universal experience. It achieved this goal by means of the rich mathematical relationships embedded in its melodies, and the principle of unity embodied in its rhythms. In Greek thinking, music served as an avenue to gain a better understanding of the ideal forms of the virtues of beauty and goodness, thus bringing the individual closer to the ultimate goal of existence, the contemplation of the eternal.

In this perspective, harmony and balance proportion represented the very structure of good. As one considers the Greek approach to music, one might feel very much in agreement with such a perspective.

Is it not true that we are affected by the music we are listening to? But how does music affect us? Are we helplessly at the mercy of musical influences? Does music indeed have the capacity to change our characters into the image of the contemplated emotion? At the very beginning of our study we learned that music affects us on the levels of our bodies, minds, and feelings.

We speak of music as cheering us up, energizing us, and elevating us, but also as making us sad or nostalgic. We need to remember, however, that to the Greeks, the impact of certain melodies, rhythms, and instruments went beyond a mere effect on the emotions.

These musical elements indeed were understood to act directly on the very character of the person and to have power to shape, change, and transform it. Art, in Greek thinking, involves a process of identification: Such transformations were possible because of a "certain affinity of the soul with the harmoniai and rhythms.

In idolatry the object in itself is granted a magic power.

In the case of music such power would be attributed to a melody or scale pattern e. The Word of God teaches us, though, that the transforming power does not result from the contemplation of human work, whatever it is. Instead, it belongs only to the divine action--it is the work of the Holy Spirit. The good resides in God alone, and it is only as we look to Jesus that "by beholding we become changed. He speaks of contemplation but refers to the transforming power that belongs to the contemplation of "the glory of the Lord.

Hirsch put it so eloquently, "Human excellence does not consist in lifting our eyes towards God in the hope to contemplate Him, but rather in being elevated by Him.

When our wills are aligned with the will of God, when we see the world from the perspective of God, then character excellence and highest ethical behavior will be achieved. Biblical ethics are not arrived at and developed by means of contemplation, but by the responsible acts of listening and submitting in willful obedience. Biblical ethics imply active collaboration: It is not a human object that acts upon me but rather the Spirit and the Word of divine revelation.

There appears, then, to be a fundamental difference between the Greek view of good and evil and the biblical understanding of what is right and wrong. The Greeks conceived good and evil in terms of harmony and disharmony. Good music was music whose language reflected the mathematical principles of balance and harmony. Moreover, it was not the concrete things on earth that were important for them, but rather what pointed to a higher level, in order to come closer to the perfect understanding of the good.

Nearer to our time, modernism, an art movement of the late nineteenth century, adopted a larger view of ethics, insofar as the good was also very conceivable as disharmonious or ugly, such as an act of sacrifice or renunciation. Translated into music, this means that excessively emotional music, dissonance or clashing sounds, would also qualify as art, especially as a representation of reality.

On the other hand, evil could present itself as very harmonious, logical, and well structured, such as the Nazi machine during World War II. Against these secular approaches, the biblical point of view of good and evil situates itself on a totally different level, namely, that of obedience or disobedience to the law of God.

It is no more an abstract principle, but places the individual actions on the level of a relationship with God and fellow humans. It becomes, then, essential to make a use of music that is in harmony with the laws of God. If we want to place our discussion of music into a biblical perspective, we must be aware of the differences between these various concepts of ethics and be careful not to apply a Greek concept of ethics to a modern approach, or even more so, to a biblical one.

Through the voice of church fathers and modern theologians, this Greek understanding of the relationship between ethics and aesthetics reached all the way down to our times and can be recognized in the terminology that still characterizes our conversations about music, that is, our use of "good" and "bad" to characterize music.

This is true especially when people use these terms indiscriminately, applying them when speaking about music in aesthetic terms: In terms of aesthetics, the same words refer to external qualities of things how something looks or sounds. As we strive to foster better understanding and to create fruitful dialogue, we must carefully choose our vocabulary when speaking about music, and limit ourselves to exact and precise terminology. We need to make sure there is no ambiguity in the way we use these terms.

There is music that is complex, refined in its internal relationships and allusions, and well crafted. And there is also music that is simplistic or mediocre, in bad taste or even outright vulgar, and poorly crafted.

While these dichotomies of musical appreciation belong to every age of musical composition, they seem to resonate much stronger regarding music from the past century. The beginnings of this phenomenon must be traced back to the early nineteenth century, when, under the democratic impulse of the French Revolution, and with reference to the ancient Greek model, music was understood as a powerful tool to teach and entertain the masses.

During the twentieth century the great flowering of commercial music that took off around the s widened the rift between what we may call cultivated, or serious, music rather than classical music and popular music light music. Cultivated, serious music is understood to provide spiritual meaning and aesthetic fulfillment by challenging the listener to participate in the process of interpretation. To an increasing degree during the recent past decades, music came to be considered primarily as entertainment and merchandise, catering to the collective taste and imagination and to a consumer culture.

In such a culture there is little time for the decoding and understanding of a musical language. Rather, there is the desire for immediate use and gratification, accelerated emotional stimulation pleasure generation , and the spectacular. In following this path, music has become an adequate picture of its culture: As church music scholar Donald Hustad discussed so appropriately, there is not much relevancy in discussing the "relative worth" of serious music and popular music. Both genres give pleasure and communicate meaning.

While art music might be "more profound in its delineation of meaning," popular music "gets to the meaning more directly. A song or piece of music, whichever style it is representing classical, traditional, popular , can feature the highest artistic characteristics and still not be appropriate for a given occasion. What is appropriate for rejoicing is not appropriate for mourning.

What is appropriate for protest or entertainment or for recreation or leisure may not be appropriate for a sacred setting. What is appropriate in one culture for worship may not be appropriate in another culture. What might have been appropriate for worship in a given time in the past may not be appropriate for today's worship. The decision in favor of the appropriateness or inappropriateness of music must be made based on a set of values and criteria that define a given event.

In the case of worship music, it is the values attached to worship that define appropriate or inappropriate worship music. The problem with worship music comes not so much from a wrong understanding of music, but rather from a lack of understanding what worship is or from very personal and subjective opinions with regard to worship. If we want to tackle the matter of appropriate versus inappropriate music, we first need to remedy our ignorance or misconceptions about the very source and foundation of worship music.

But what about a musical discourse conveying meaning? Does a musical experience speak to us in a specific way? How do we capture the meaning as we are listening to music? Rapper Kool Mo Dee thrived during hip-hop's nascent years as a vocalist whose tongue-twisting rhymes and speedy delivery put his counterparts to shame. Building on this original list, Kool has put together an extensive rating system to compile the definitive list of the greatest MCs of all time.

Kool rates each MC based on seventeen different categories, ranging from the artist's lyricism, vocabulary, and freestyling ability to his longevity, body of work, and social impact.

Each artist is given a numerical score from one to ten in each of the seventeen categories, as well as an explanation for how this rating was determined. The book includes a complete discography and full-color photograph for each MC, and will also have supplemental lists, such as the top ten storytellers and top ten rhymers.

Read more Read less. Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. Learn more. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. The Rap Year Book: Shea Serrano. Customers who bought this item also bought.

The Tao of Wu. The RZA. The Gospel of Hip Hop: The First Instrument. Goodbye Uncle Tom. Product details Paperback: Da Capo Press November 20, Language: English ISBN Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention hip hop moe dee kool moe fat joe god on the mic lil kim foxy brown greatest mcs of all time daddy kane mos def industry impact old school really good eminem dmx agree or disagree true 50 greatest big daddy even though made the list good book.

Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Paperback Verified Purchase. Book is amazing and the servi. My husband has wanted this book for years. The copy we got was a Library edition so the front and back were laminated which was a nice bonus.

Book is amazing and the service was very prompt to get it.

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If you are between 40 and 60, you were a the party during the dawn of Hip Hop. If you are a fan of Rap, you will enjoy this book. Most likely, you will disagree with the inclusions, exclusions, and placement of Koo Mo Dee's choices but you'll find this book interesting.One may similarly observe the ambiance in clubs to verify the impact of a sonic experience. Stockton Press, , s. When I got to the door, she still going crazy yelled down the hall, "Fine, I'll forgive him!

This certainly is a greater concern today--because of how music is approached in terms of balance between tension and relaxation--than it was during earlier centuries.

Many days passed before I finally discovered the benevolent man's identity. How can we use music responsibly? Dissipating the Misunderstandings Chapter The negative aspect of the narrative sermon is that a lot of scriptural meat is left on the table. We left there and drove to Lewiston to talk to Eddie's dad.

Therefore, it is important to learn to decode or understand the meaning of a style within a particular cultural setting.

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