Politics World Class Manufacturing Ebook


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Editorial Reviews. Review. John P. Robb Vice President, Manufacturing Monsanto Electronic World Class Manufacturing by [Schonberger, Richard J.]. Read "World Class Manufacturing" by Richard J. Schonberger available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. In his best-selling . Now, in World Class Manufacturing, Schonberger returns to tell the success World Class Manufacturing also includes Schonberger's point.

World Class Manufacturing Ebook

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Title, World-class manufacturing. Author, Jim Todd. Edition, illustrated. Publisher, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Original from, the University of Michigan. Armed with new world-class benchmark data, Schonberger redefines excellence in This book will be indispensable reading for manufacturing and general. World Class Manufacturing by Richard J. Schonberger - In his best-selling book Japanese Manufacturing Techniques, Richard J. Schonberger revolutionized.

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World Class Manufacturing

How to write a great review. Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px.

Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Quality concepts were primitive by today's standards.

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While some plants had an ethic of continual improvement applied very selectively , the norm was to transform simplicity into complexity, which sowed the seeds of decline. Turning Point There is reseeding going on, and there seems to be a single year that could be called the turning point: In that year a few North American companies and perhaps some in Europe began overhauling their manufacturing apparatus.

Those first WCM thrusts followed two parallel paths. One was the quality path, and the other was the just-in-time JIT production path. The first North American companies to take the quality path, also in give or take a few months were Nashua Corp. These may be thought of as imports from Japan rather than as turning points in existing North American companies. Nashua got its start by bringing in W. Edwards Deming, the American who, along with Joseph Juran, was instrumental in getting Japan's quality movement going in the s.

Tennant provided early support for Crosby to form a quality college in Florida. Those stirrings in a few companies in may someday be chronicled as the third major event in the history of manufacturing management. The first two: Taylor, Frank Gilbreth, et al. The s World-class manufacturing could not become the third major event if it were to peter out. The signs that it will not, that WCM is much more than a fad, are persuasive.

The list of companies that have already made order-of-magnitude improvements in quality and manufacturing lead time is getting long. For example, I have compiled and continue to update a list of the "s," which refers to companies, factories, or parts of factories where fivefold, tenfold, or twentyfold reductions in manufacturing lead time have been achieved. The list, with explanatory comments in some cases, is provided as an appendix at the end of this book.

Stories about some of the plants will be told in later chapters. I have conducted seminars and provided consultancy at manufacturing plants in a number of European and Pacific Basin besides Japan countries and have found the WCM fever to be globe-spanning. With so short a history, WCM has not had a chance to mature in all of its natural habitats. What surprises many is the progressive unearthing of more and more natural habitats.

I refer not to different continents and countries but to different industries and types of production.

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That is, what makes a world-class manufacturer in one industry also seems to work in many other industries. Let us see why that should not be surprising. Streamlined Flow Consider how a restaurant fills a customer's order: The cook puts meat from the grill onto the platter, goes to the range to scoop some vegetables, opens the oven to get a baked potato, heads for the salad bar to extract a salad, and so forth.

It goes fast, because a kitchen is small and the cook puts only one serving of each food item on the platter.

Stop-and-Go A machine shop, a sheet metal shop, a printed-circuit-board shop -- any shop or factory that makes to order -- is just the same. As long as the shop or factory is small, production is usually quite fast. But who wants to stay small?

We have plants -- for final goods and component parts alike -- with thousands of employees and hundreds of thousands of square feet of space. Now the work goes through the plant at a snail's pace. Plant management has its hands full trying to prevent gridlock.

If a restaurant kitchen grew the way our factories do, the platter would go to the grill area for a piece of meat and then move by slow conveyor to the vegetable area.

The meat would get cold -- and might even fall to the floor once or twice on the way. At the vegetable area, the massive cookers might be tied up making vegetables other than the kind ordered for the platter, which means waiting until the next batch is cooked. Growth is not the problem. The problem is the more-of-the-same approach to growth. A restaurant is a little job shop, to use the manufacturing term. It will not work if it becomes a big job shop -- where a job platter has to traverse vast distances from one shop to another, waiting for one thing or another at most of the shops.

Growth must be accompanied by a transformation to preserve speed, to avoid stopand-go production. Over the years we came to believe that stop-and-go production was the fate of the job shop. We also believed that job shops were the fate of industry, because customers are fickle; they want the variety that job shops can provide.

Job shop people looked enviously at the flow shops, where work just flows down a production line or through pipes continuously as patrons flow down a cafeteria line.

That view is out of style, because we have learned how to streamline our job shops, to make them behave more like flow shops. Some go so far as to simplify products and regularize schedules, and thereby transform themselves into flow shops.

Many others -- those that stick with customers who demand variety -- will not become flow shops, but they can come close. The chameleon cannot ever be a leaf, but it can look like one. So it is in manufacturing. Imperfect Flows What tools and techniques make job shop transformations possible? At the top of the list are the set known as just-in-time production techniques. They were perfected by Toyota in Japan in the s and s.

Toyota's techniques caused work to move through parts fabrication processes fast and get to final assembly just in time for use. JIT was shaped in the flow shop mold. Continuous-flow industries -- the "pure" flow shops -- have been around for a hundred or two hundred years. Examples are bottling, tableting, and canning; extruding and weaving; milling and refining. Some of the processes are tightly coupled.

The work leaves one process and flows, perhaps through a pipe, to arrive just in time for the next. In that sense, JIT was around long before the people at Toyota thought of it. In reality the flows are usually not all that continuous.

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The grain mills, the food processors, the medicine makers, the cloth producers, and the rest are stop-and-go producers, too. They go for a time on one size, style, model, or chemical formulation, then shut down for a complete changeover in order to run another. Shutdowns for changeover are one concern. The massive quantities that build between changes -- the raw and semiprocessed material, and especially the finished goods pushed out well in advance of customer needs -- are a greater concern.

All are forms of costly waste. There are dominant WCM precepts for treating the ailment. One is a JIT principle: The smaller the lot size, the better. World-class manufacturers of cars, tractors, and motorcycles have some lot sizes down to one unit by becoming adept at changeovers between models. This permits making some of every model every day, almost like continuous-flow processing.

With that capability, they outdo the flow processors they started out trying to copy. A second precept is the total quality control TQC principle: Do it right the first time. In the flow industries this means setting up for a new run so that the first yard of cloth, linear foot of sheet steel, length of hose, can, bottle, or tablet is good.

A third set of precepts is called "total" preventive maintenance TPM. Maintain the equipment so often and so thoroughly that it hardly ever breaks down, jams, or misperforms during a production run. There is nothing like an equipment failure to turn a continuous processor into its opposite number.

Ford has been called the father of mass production. His Highland Park and, later, River Rouge plants mass-produced the parts just in time for assembly, and his assembly lines pulled work forward to next assembly stations just in time, too.

By the Highland Park facility was unloading a hundred freight cars of materials each day, and the materials flowed through fabrication, subassembly, and final assembly back onto freight cars. The product was the Model T, and the production cycle was twenty-one days.

At River Rouge, about , the cycle was only four days, and that included processing ore into steel in the steel mill that Ford built at River Rouge.

That roughly equals the best Japanese JIT auto manufacturing plants today. But it was much easier for Henry Ford, because his plants followed his now famous dictum, "They can have it any color they want, so long as it's black. Ford's Tin Lizzies almost could have flowed through a huge pipeline with intersecting pipes bringing in the components at just the right locations and times.

The Model-T factories were what is known as dedicated plants and production lines. Where capacity is cheap cheap equipment or labor or volume is high, dedicated JIT lines make sense.

Most producers of television sets, radios, videotape recorders, and personal computers today have enough volume to follow the easy dedicated-line path to JIT. Most automobile manufacturing is of lower volume and cannot achieve JIT so easily. Nissan in Oppama, Japan, sets up a dedicated line only if sales volume is 10, cars a month or more.

Since most models they make fall below that number, other approaches are necessary.

Some of the other approaches are examined next. Making Just What Is Sold -- Every Day Whether making things that pour the flow industries or things that are counted in whole units discrete goods , a WCM precept is to produce some of every type every day and in the quantities sold that day.

Making more than can be sold is costly and wasteful, and the cost and waste are magnified manyfold as the resulting lumpiness in the demand pattern ripples back through all prior stages of manufacture, including outside suppliers.

Makers of highly seasonal goods sometimes have sound reason for building at least some stock days or weeks before use or sale. Most of industry's chronic mismatches between demand rate and production rate are not caused by seasonality, however. Those mismatches are fixable.

Companies in the flow industries need to figure out how to change over flow lines so fast that there is no reason for a long production run of one type. Since the flow industries have been investing for years in inflexible equipment that resists quick changeover, it is not an easy fix. In the assembly industries it tends to be an easy fix.

Assembly -- of personal computers, washing machines, boats, trucks, furniture, and hundreds of thousands of other products -- is still largely manual. Humans are adaptable and can change from one model to another with ease -- and efficiency, too. Assembly is efficient, however, only if the work place is orderly, with every part and tool exactly placed.

If the assembler has to search, the efficiency is gone. In Japanese Manufacturing Techniques I told about working for the fastest bricklayer in North Dakota and about how he yelled at me if I didn't place bricks so that he could reach and find them without looking. That concept -- exact placement of all the parts to eliminate search -- has enabled the world's motorcycle manufacturers and some tractor producers to change models after each unit.

That is called mixed-model production, and the lot size is one.Since the invention of double-entry bookkeeping, managers have judged a company's worth by sales and profits. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. The Village Inn Pancake House chain does this, using time-stamping machines, in processing food orders.

General Electric has transformed its dishwasher plant in Louisville, Kentucky, into a WCM showcase, and moving machines into cells was a basic step. We know the answer. The machines are so close together that there is no need for a container, storage rack, or fork-lift truck. Just stamp the hour and date on a product or service in its raw stage, stamp it again when it is finished, and subtract.

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