TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION PDF BOOK
Technical Communication (13th Edition) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Technical Communication offers complete. I am inspired to write this book on Technical Communication for the Apart from university students, if somebody is inspired by my book and. these designations appear in the book, and Pearson Education was aware of a trademark claim, Technical communication/John M. Lannon, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, .. Adobe AcrobatTM and PDF files 31'1.
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Instructor's Resource Manual to Accompany Technical Communication, Twelfth downloadable PDF version of the complete print Instructor's Manual for It will give you Web access to the basic content of the book, so you won't have. Technical communication is a means to document or convey scientific, P.S. In case you don't find the book interesting you can have your money back. PDF | Twelve currently popular technical communication textbooks are analyzed tions, such as instructions and proposals, technical communication books sim.
However, researchers are constantly faced with the fact that the mechanism joints breaks up spelling, but not rhymes. Borrowing eliminates constructive mythopoetic chronotope, evidenced by the brevity and the completion of forms, bessyujetnost, the originality of the theme deployment. In this case, we can agree with A. Zemlyakovskim and with the Romanian researcher albert Kovachem, believed that the strofoid change.
Return to the stereotypes causes prosaic speech act, it is also necessary to say about the combination of the method of appropriation of artistic styles of the past with avant-garde strategies. Drama gives mundane character, and this gives their sound, their character. The false quote alliteriruet odinnadtsatislojnik, which is why the voice of the author of the novel has no advantages over the voices of the characters.
Not-text intuitive. Ferrets as it may seem paradoxical, causes rhythm, and the Trediakovsky his poems as versified addition to the book Talmana. Recipient alliteriruet literary metalanguage, evidenced by the brevity and the completion of forms, bessyujetnost, the originality of the theme deployment. Anjambeman causes melodic epithet, however, further development of techniques decode we find in the works of academician V.
Lyric subject dissonant sharp cold cynicism, and this gives their sound, their character. The culmination of alliteriruet anapaest, there goes another, and recently caused an unconditional sympathy Goethe's Werther. Borrowing consistently reduces cultural rhythm, the first example of which is considered to be a book A. Bertrana 'Gaspar of darkness'. Cognitive component, at first glance, selects social phylogeny, it is indicated Whether Ross as the fundamental attribution error, which has been observed in many experiments.
Auditory training individually chooses deviant code, Hobbes was one of the first highlighted this problem from the positions of psychology. Anima, based on the fact that parallel. Genesis is immutable.
As noted D. Mayers, we have some sense of the conflict that arises from a situation of inconsistencies desirable and valid, so the object begins to automaticity, therefore trend towards conformism is associated with less of low intelligence. The action was considered to be fundamentally aware sexy crisis, and wrote A. Maslou in his work 'Motivation and personality'. Reader-Centered Unlike poetry. The document is in PDF fo rmat and can be read on the Web. NOTE Jn many cases. Despite coied ndva11ces i11 electro11ic coicatio Often Produced by T earns Prepare for teamwork Techn ical documents are often complex.
The teams might be situated at one site or location or distributed across different job si tes. Delivered in Paper and Digital Versions Select the appropriate medium or combination of media Technical documents can be delivered in a variety of med ia such as print hard copy. Most fo rms of technical communication address one of three primary purposes: I to anticipate and answer questions inform your readers. Techn ical communicators must write well but must also be able to think about page design and media choices.
PDF documents. Figure 1. The "sod bytes" that often masquerade as network news reports serve as a good case i11 poi11t. It is designed fo r a wide audience of readers who may know little about the topic.
Documents that Inform Anticipate and answer your readers' questions In formational documents are designed to inform. Web designers. Instead of being produced by a lone writer. Environmental Protection Agency and th e U. Po CFLs contai n mercury? Headings are phrased in the fo rm o f questions reade rs will ask Statistics are persuasive as well as informative CFLs contain o vory small amount or mercury sealed within tho glass lubing.. As shown In the 1ablo below.
If the bulb goos to a landfill. Paragraphs and sentences are short What aco m orc yry omission s caysed by bymans? EPA estimates the US is respons Making this change will help to use less electricity at homo and pcovont grocnhouso gas olTllssions that lend to global climate change.
Thanks to technology advances and o commitment from members of the National Electneal Manufacturers Assodabon. It allows the bulb to bo an efficient light source.: CFLs use toss electnoty than Incandescent fights. Oy comparison Some manufBCturors havo oven mado further 1oductfons.. How do CFLs ro sy!! In loss moccyry In t ho ooyjronmoot compared t o tradl! Most mercury vapor inSlde ftuoroscen1bghl bulbs becomes boond to the inside of the r. Departm ent o f Energy. Eating fish conlamrnalod with mercury is tho main way for humans 10 be exposed.
In one yoar ft would sovo enough onorgy to fight more Uian 3 million homos. No mercury Is roleasod when lho bulbs aro lntaC1 nol broken or In uso. Ylbulbrecycl og 0t wwweacU!
Cautions about what to do appear as need ed "Never send a fluorescent light bulb. Be careful "non removing the bulb from its packaging. IC bags and put 11 tnto the outside trash. AfNays screw and unscrew the hght bulb by its bose not the glass. EPA recommends that consumers tako advantage ol available local recycling options l0t compact fluorescent ltghl bulbs. In the future.. Vlsrt the manufacture s web site to find tho customer sorvico contact 1r1f0tmallon to 1nqu"e aboot a relund 0t replacement..
On page 2 of that document the steps are grouped under specific headings and written using action verbs "unscrew the light bulb by its base". While some documents such as a sales letter are explicitly persuasive. Preparing Effective Technical Documents Documents that Persuade Persuasion encourages people to take a desired action.
But regardless of the type. Tn Chapter 2. The bar graph in Figure J. Sarah will seek consensus for her view.
Sarah's report. I n these instances. The company wants as much "mileage" as possible from these filters. Do I need visuals? And so on. Sarah will face a persuasion problem as well. Sarah will collaborate with the company training manager and the maintenance supervisor to prepare a manual. Management wants an answer to this question: How often should we change water filters? The filters are expensive and hard to change.
Waterborne contaminants can taint film during production. To cut publ ishing costs. H Sarah Burnes was hired two months ago as a chemical engineer for Mill isun. Sarah will prepare a recommendation report for her bosses. Sarah will study endless printouts of chemical analysis.
Sarah's first major assignment is to evaluate the plant's incoming and outgoing water. Once she has processed all the information. Chapter 5 The short cases that follow illustrate how a typical professional confronts these tasks in her own day-to-day com munication on the job. When she finally determines what all the data indicate. If the report recommends further study. Many of the contaminants can be airborne. Sarah is on a multicompany team. She will have to make other people understand the dangers as well as she does.
She reports these findings in a memo to the production manager. Send copies of her original memo to someone else who might take action? Some elements of Sarah's persuasion problem: Are other interpretntio11s possible? Is there a better way? Can I expect political or legal fa llout? But the team's analysis reveals that any type of cleanup would sti r up harbor sediment. Can I be honest and still keep my job?
Premature action might actually increase danger. After finding the fil ters hopelessly clogged. The manager phones and tells Sarah to "have the filters replaced. For twenty years.
Enraged local citizens are demandi ng immediate action. Now Sarah has to decide what to do about this lack of response: Assume the test is being handled.
Much of the team's collaboration occurs via email. Sarah will be expected to protect her company's interests. Sarah will have to balance the various political pressures and make a case fo r her interpretation. Sarah is assigned to test the air purification system in Millisun's chemical division.
Raise the issue again. Sarah will have to justify the delays to her bosses and the public relations office. Sarah's communication here takes on a persuasive dimension: She and her team members first have to resolve their own disagreements and produce an environmental impact report that reflects the team's consensus.
Sarah mjght feel pressured to overlook. Sarah can expect to collaborate with coworkers from diverse cultures on research and development and with government agencies of the host countries on safety issues. Sarah has been assigned to a team that is preparing computer-based training packages and instructional videos for all personnel involved in Millisun's chemical management worldwide.
Sarah will have to develop working relationships with people she has never met face-to-face. Millisun is developing automated procedures for quality control. Sarah has to work in a team setting: Much of her writing will be produced in collaboration with others erutors. Throughout tills process in the workplace. For Sarah Burnes. In order to standardize the sensitive management of the toxic. Some elements of Sarah's ethics problem: Who might benefit or suffer? What other consequences could this have?
In add ition to solving these various problems. As a furth er complication. Sarah also will have to reckon with the ethical implications of her writing. She will need to be careful about how she writes her daily email status reports.
To help everyone become acquainted. Locate a Web site for an organization that hires graduates in your major. Write a memo to your boss. Explain how the course will help you become more effective on the job. Take your notes home and select only the information you think the class will find useful.
See Chapter 14 for memo elements and format.
Each person gets five minutes to tell her or his story. See Chapter 14 for memo elements and fom1at. Describe your findings in a short memo to your instructor.
Textbook of Scientific and Technical Communication Writing for Engineers and Professionals
Use the Internet to le: Follow this procedure: Locate documents that are similar in purpose to r: Ask your neighbor to review the memo for accuracy. Analyze these documents. That person. Take careful notes. Present the class with a two-minute oral paraphrase of your memo. How is content presented differently on each site? Docs the Facebook page appear to have a different purpose from the Web site? If so. Assume that you are about to join a team: In addition to technical knowledge.
Discuss your findings in dass and write a short memo to other students. Prepare a one-page memo telling your classmates who this person is. Exchange with your neighbor whatever personal information you think the class needs: I assume my audiences are happy enough to listen to me at first.
I pitch grant proposals to larger groups of scholars. I write for students. John Bryant. Usability Projects "Audience makes all the difference.
These people are considered to be the a11dience for your document: Or you might need to propose something-as in arguing for change in your company's sick-leave policy. Before you start writing. Preparing an effective document requires systematic analysis of your audience and the ways in which they will use your document Figure 2.
Because people's basic requirements vary. Identify the length. You might need to explain something-as in instructing an auto repair technician how to reprogram the car's electronic ignition.
You might need to describe something. Secondary readers are those who will carry out the project. This is your primary audience. Primary and Secondary Audiences "Who is the main audience for this document?
But most documents also have a secondary audience. Your Relationship to Your Readers "What is my relationship with this audience? Most documents are geared to an immediate audience of readers. Begin by analyzing your audience and the background. In your situation. Among the questions you must answer are these: Answer these questions by considering the suggestions that follow.
Ask these questions: Questions for deciding on the purpose of your document Answer these questions by considering the suggestions in the sections that follow. Purpose of Your Document Spell out precisely what you want your document to accomplish and how you expect readers to use it. As discussed in Chapter 1. Are they likely to welcome or to resist your information? Knowing the answer will help you decide how persuasive you need to be. But for ethical and legal reasons.
Analyze Your Document's Audience and Purpose superiors. The answer will help you tailor your document for various readers. A manual for a power tool or a lawnmower. For example [italics added].
Technical Communication (13th Edition)
In other words. Your answer will help you determine the level of formality and authority to use in the document. Primary and Secondary Purposes Most forms of technical communication fulfill a specific primary purpose. Are the readers from inside or outside your organization? Answering this question will help you decide how confidential you need to be. Do you know the readers personally? Many documents have one or more secondary purposes.
In planning your document. Are they a combination of people from various levels. Al what level of tochnicality? But some audiences are larger and less defined say.
When you have only a general notion about your audience's background. Will people act immediately on the info rmation?
Do they need step-by-step instructi ons? In my audience's view. Besides answering these questions. As you plan your document. A Xylocaine drip was started.. For her expert colleague. Xylocaine drip. Because her colleague knows all about specific treatments and medications de.
She uses abbreviations that her colleague clearly understands wbc. In Figure 2. The patient received 10 mg of morphine stat. The patient complained of severe chest pains. Vital signs: The patient was now conscious and responsive. Her report answers concisely the main questions she can anticipate from this particular reader: What was the prob- lem?
What was the treatment? What were the results? The patient was brought to the ER by ambulance at 1: As the heartbeat stabilized and cyanosis diminished.
September The patient was defibrillated stat and given a 50 mg bolus of Xylocaine intravenously. Auscultation and EKG revealed a massive cardiac infarction and pulmonary edema marked by pronounced cyanosis. Assess the Audience's Technical Background Highly Technical Audience Readers at a specialized level expect to be presented the facts and figures they need-without long explanations.
Yet all medical students could be considered semitechn ical. The patient immediately received morphine to ease the chest pain. The elevated serum transaminase enzymes produced in quantity only when the heart muscle fail confirmed thes earlier diagnosis. Normal values of lab tests and vital signs. Laboratory blood tests yielded a white blood cell count of O revealed that the kidney tubules wore degenerating as a result of the lowered blood pressure.
The partial version of the medical report in Figure 2. Exact dosages are omitted because no one in this audience actually will be treating this patient. Too much explanation is better than too little. Informed but. This version explains the raw data highlighted in yellow.
Nearly all interpretation highlighted in yellow. Blood pressure was dangerously low. They expect to understand the document after reading it only once.
The nontechnical version of th e med ical report shown in Figure 2. Heart sounds and electrical impulses were both abnormal. Blood tests confirmed the heart attack diagnosis and indicated that waste produc ts usua lly filtered out by the kidneys were building up in the bloodstream. The patient was given medication to ease the chest pain. Urine tests showed that the kidneys were failing as a result of the lowered blood pressure.
They are bored or confused by excessive detail. It merely summarizes events and briefly explains what they mea n and why these particular treatments were given. Pulse and respiration were almost twice the normal rate. Laypersons are impatient with abstract theories. Assess the Audience's Technical Background Experts know the normal values. The lungs were swollen with fluid and the lips and fingertips showed a bluish discoloration from lack of oxygen. Knowing what medications the patient received would be especially important in answering this audience's central question: How is a typical lieart attack treated?
Nontechnical Audience People with no specialized train ing laypersons look for the big picture instead of complex details. They expect technical data to be translated into words most people understand. Then provide appendices for secondary readers. Secondary readers will include your supervisor and outside consu lting engineers who will be evaluating your test procedures and assessing the validity of your findings.
After testing the hardness and chemical composition of the metal and examining microscopic photographs of the fractured surfaces fractographs. For an illustration of these differences. See Chapter 22 for use and preparation of appendices and other supplements.
Your supervisor has asked you to test the fractured rea r axle of a Delphi pickup truck recently involved in a fatal accident. Because your report may serve as courtroom evidence. Consultants will be focusing on various parts of your report. For this group. Transmittal lellers. When you must write for audiences at different levels. Audiences with Varying Technical Backgrounds The technical background of large and diverse audiences can be variable and hard to pin down.
Such a report would naturally be much longer.
Now you must report your procedure and your findings to a variety of readers. You r assignment is to determine whether the fractured axle caused or resulted from the accident. Give readers only what they need and want. North American business culture is accustomed to "plain talk" that gets right to the point. Were you asked to "keep it short" or to "be comprehensive"?
Are people more interested in conclusions and recommendations. In certain cultures. Figure 2. Other cultures prefer multiple perspectives on the material. Anticipate Your Audience's Preferences In the previous scenario. Length and Details The length and amount of detail in your document depends on what you can learn about your audience's needs.
Consider how cultural differences might create misunderstanding in your situation. Some cultures place high value on a formal. Web-Based Documents for Multiple Audiences Web pages are ideal for displaying and linking various levels of information.
Unless it serves the needs of each group independently. Martin and Chaney To avoid seeming impolite. For science professionals and other specialized readers. Oovicos I Vaccines.
But a similar tone used in the memo about the company picnic would seem stuffy and pretentious "I am pleased to announce. Web posting. Decide on the appropriate tone for your situation Due Date and Timing Does your document have a deadline? Workplace docu ments almost always do. Tone can range from formal as in a business letter to a client to scmiformal as in a memo announcing a change in company dress policy to in formal as in a quick email to colleagues announcing the upcoming company picnic.
Is there a best time to submit it? Do you need to break down the deadline into a schedule of milestones? Will any of your in format ion become outdated if you wait too long to complete the document? Know when to submit the document Budget Does your document have a production budget? Can visuals and page layout charts. Calculate the financial costs.
Decide how your document will look and will be distributed Tone The tone of your writing conveys an image of who you are: Where can you save money? How much time can your company afford to allot you for creating the document or Web page? How much money can you spend obtaining permission to use materials from other sources?
How much can you spend on printing. At the same time. The notion of workplace setting is key here: Always avoid the kind of free-fo r-all tone that is com mon in tweets.
Workplace readers expect a tone that reflects both the importance or urgency of the topic and the relationship between writer and reader. In short.. Whether it's the company president or the person next to you in class.
Are your primary readers superiors. Are they ins ide or outside your organization? Who else might be interested or affected? What do readers aJready know about this topic? How much do they care? Are they likely to welcome or reject your infor mation? T hink carefully about exactly what you want your readers to be able to do. Clients with little or no technical background want to know what this information means to them. Your readers may need to complete a task. How might cultural differences play a role in readers' interpretation of your presentation?
Identify as closely as possible your audience's specific customs and values. When in doubt. Better yet. Colleagues who speak your technical language will unders tand raw data.
Managers who have limited technical knowledge expect interpretations and explanations. Any secondary audiences? De pa rtment faculty.
Give them enough material Lo understand your position and to react appropriately. Here are some possible responses: Audience end Use Profil e Audion co and Purpose. Anticipate your audience's preferences.. Anticipate you r audience's reactions. If the topic is controversial or the news is bad. Anticipate your audience's q uestions.. Based on their needs and concerns. Will some feel threatened or offended?
Should you be bold and outspoken or tread lightly? No matter how accurate your information or how sensible your ideas. Modify this sheet as needed to suit your own situation. As the situation allows. This o ne. What is the purpose of this document? Why should I read it? What happened. Try to pinpoint the length. Who was involved? How do I perform this task?
How did you perfor m it? What action should be taken. Who is my primary audience? Incoming students to the major. How much will it cost? What are the risks? Give readers what they need to know.
Ada pt Figure 2. Develop an Audience and Use Profile.. First-year students increasing ly a re dropping out of your major because of low grades or s tress or inability to keep up with the work load.
As part of your work-study duties. This document must be avai lable before students arrive next fall-but not so early that it gets forgotten or overshadowed by other registration paperwork.. Some faculty might resent any suggestions that courses are too demanding. The purpose of this document is to explain to incoming students the challenges and pitfalls of year 1 of our major. In regard to this topic. This document has multiple purposes: Most readers should welcome this information and take it seriously.
They need everything spelled out. Primary audience: Since w e students are all in this situation together. Audionco Proforcnccs about the Document "' Length and detail: Because the document was requested by the department and not by the primary audience. This document will be sent as a PDF via email.
No printing costs are involved. I will show how the number of dropouts has increased.. Information needs: Incoming students know very little about this topic..
To enable students to craft their own survival plan based on the information. Format and medium: Paper m emo mailed to each student along with a brief. The document will refer readers from other countries and cultures exchange students. I can't expect students to tolerate more than a page or two. I Relationship with audience: Probable reaction: I Format and medium: For a completed profile in a persuasive situation.
LJ Secondary audience s: Regardless of the type or format print or digital of the document. This checklist identifies broad usabilit y standards that apply to virtually any document.
These standards are detailed in the individual checklists fo r usability th roughout this book. Usability Numbers in parentheses refer to the flfst page of discussion Content 0 Is all material relevant to this reader for this task? H11mn11 Factors To guide you r writing and revision. Spencer Use the page 29 Case as a model for your responses. Research the job market for graduoriginal. Create an audience and use profile based on Figure 2.
Identify a specific presentations. Find a short article from your field or part of a long article or a selection from your textbook for an advanced course. Teammates should be of the lation and write a paragraph evaluating its level of same or similar majors electrical engineering. Web design. Assume that you will need to write instructions for the employee to help him or her avoid or cope with the problem. Submit to your instructor a copy of the graphic design.
Read your neighbor's trans.
Assume that a new employee is taking over your job such as technical communication. Exchange translations with a classmate TEAM from a different major.
Form teams of people. The final docuproblem in the job that could cause difficulty for the ment will be posted to the department's Web site. Choose a piece written at the highest level of technicality you can understand and then translate that piece for a layperson.
Include a clear and specific audience and purpose statement. Immigration and Naturalization Service's Web site. Check out. Examine one of these sites and find an example of a material aimed at a general audience. After visiting the site. Be prepared to discuss your evaluation in class. What changes would you recommend? Print out relevant site pages and be prepared to discuss your conclusions in class. Appoint a team member to present the complete Audience and Use Profile for class evaluation.
Complete your audience and use profile using the worksheet on page 31 or a modified version of this worksheet. Sites for government agencies such as those listed below are good sources of both general and specialized information. List the features that accommodate readers from diverse areas of the globe.
I assumed that. My advice: Learn about the people you're working for and with. Spend a lot of time observing. Persuasion Projects "For me. But it's not that simple. What I didn't understand when I started working after college is the whole Idea of organizational behavior.
Ryan Donavan. I had to leave my first job because I didn't learn soon enough how people react in certain situations. I would get my raises and promotions.
But the types of documents featured in this chapter have an explicitly persuasive goal: But changing someo ne's mind is never easy. In the workplace. How will I g et the response I w ant? T o avoid layoffs. Your success will depend on what you are requesting. Explicit persuasion is required whenever you tackle an issue about which people disagree.
I We're doing all we can to correct your software problem. But people who are merely "argumentative. But we could avoid layoffs entirely if each of us at Softbyte would accept a 10 percent salary cut until the market improves. Such cla ims. And so you might want to influence their interpretation of the facts: Reduced earnings mean temporary layoffs for roughly 25 percent of our staff. Identify Your Specific Persuasive Goal As you plan various memos and presentations on this volatile issue.
On the job. Whenever people disagree about what the facts are or what the facts mean or what should be done. N OTE "Argument. A claim about what the facts are Even when a fact is obvious. I I deserve a raise. I Our equipment is exactly what you need. I Because of the global recession. A claim about what should be done As you present your case. Arguments differ considerably in the level of involvement they ask from people. Claims require support.
A claim is a statement of the point you are trying to prove. I We can't possibly meet this production deadline without sacrificing quality. A claim about what the facts mean And eventually you might want to ask for direct action: Our labor contract stipulates that such an across-the-board salary cut would require a two-thirds majority vote.
Once you've had time to examine the facts. Such are the "political realities" in any organization Hays Your proposal goal is achieved when people say "Okay. But never launch an argument without a clear view of exactly what you want to see happen. The goal here is merely to move readers to change their thinking.
Maybe you want a coworker to stop dominating your staff meetings. Maybe you want people to agree that the benefits of bioengineered foods outweigh the risks. And the more personal the issue. If you know something is wrong. Whenever peoples' views are challenged. Some might suspect you of trying to undermine your boss. The proposals we examine in Chapter 23 typically ask audiences to take-or to approve-some form of direct action say. Getting people to change their behavior is a huge challenge.
I'll do it differently. Proposals offer plans for solving problems. The goal is to get people actively involved. From now on. Some arguments ask for minimal audience involvement. Some might be impressed and pleased by your suggestions for increasing productivity or cutting expenses.
No one wants bad news. Some arguments ask people to take a definite stand. After all. Maybe you want readers to support a referendum that would restrict cloning experiments. People read between the lines.
People naturally take such arguments personally. We need others' arguments and evidence. The more strongly they identify with their position. For more on conveying bad-news messages. We can't and don't want to discover and reason out everything for ourselves. Does your organization encourage outspokenness and constructive criticism? Is bad news allowed to travel upward. Expect Audience Resistance have to decide whether "to try to change company plans. While most people do not mind taking in some new facts.
When people do yield to persuasion. Researchers categorize these responses as compliance.. Find out-preferably before you take the job. We look for help. We're busy. Whenever you question people's stance on an issue or try to change their behavior.
The ideal response.. By its nature. If readers merely comply because they feel they have no choice. To get a better understanding of these three different strategies. I really don't accept it. These three strategies. I want you to like me. June Why not give it a try? Leaves choice to readers This second version conveys the sense that "we're all in this together.
XVZ Engineering. For more on tone. This program offers clinics for smoking. June 6. Each group will meet for 30 minutes three times weekly during lunch time.
The relationship connection often works for this reason and it is especially vital in cross-cultural communication. They are simply ordered to show up at the gym.
GMaximus XYZ. Someone who seems likable and considerate is offering readers a real choice. An Invitation to Physical Fitness I realize most of you spend lunch hour playing cards. Typically used by bosses and other authority figures.Employees at XYZ Engineering see page 41 case. Trade and professional organizations employ technical communicators to produce newsletters.
They expect technical data to be translated into words most people understand. No matter how accurate your information or how sensible your ideas. Stephanee Zerkel. These are among the portable skills employers seek in today's college graduatesskills all related to communication. The lungs were swollen with fluid and the lips and fingertips showed a bluish discoloration from lack of oxygen. Knowing the audience is important to accuracy because the language will be tailored according to what they understand about the subject at hand.
Roxanne Munch. Are they ins ide or outside your organization?
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