OP GHAI PEDIATRICS 7TH EDITION PDF
OP GHAI PEDIATRICS 7TH EDITION The main topic of this pdf is centered on OP GHAI PEDIATRICS 7TH EDITION, however it didn't shut the. OP Ghai Pediatrics Textbook 8th Edition PDF Book Download If you need OP Ghai Pediatrics 7th or 9th edition, check the page updates. by o p ghai free book pdf keywords free downloadghai essential pediatrics 7th read online now op ghai pediatrics 7th edition ebook pdf at our library. get op.
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The seventh edition specifically caters to the students of nursing and practicing pediatricians.
The book focuses on existing issues such as infant health, infant health education and training at a time when such issues have secured utmost attention on a national level. The focus has also shifted from nutrition and infectious diseases to genetics, intensive care and chronic diseases.
Compared to the previous edition, this edition has added facts on growth and development in light of the WHO norms.
A fresh and new perspective on neonatology and nutritional issues has been shared with particular importance being given to practical and clinical treatment.
OP Ghai Essential of Pediatrics Textbook PDF Download [Direct Link]
With more and more kinds of fevers and diseases doing the rounds, the chapter on infectious diseases has been dealt with afresh. In addition, hematology, endocrine, and renal conditions have also been written about with recent updates on various cases. The seventh edition brings a few chapters anew.
It includes topics such as new vaccines, interventional cardiology, and poison. Skin, ocular disorders, procedures and rights of children are an added plus to practicing specialists. Ghai Essential Pediatrics includes multiple algorithms and tables to support facts further.
The book was published over 25 years ago, and has been written by renowned academics. About The Authors O. Ghai was a Professor and the head of the Pediatrics Department. He was also an honorary fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and also a multiple award winner.
[pdf] OP Ghai Essentials of Pediatrics book download 8th edition
Parental traits are usually transmitted to the offspring. Thus, tall parents have tall children; the size of the head is more closely related to that of parents than are the size and shape of hands and feet. Similarly, the structure of the chest and fatty tissue has better genetic association than other somatic characteristics. Boys are generally taller and heavier than girls at the time of birth. Fetal hormones. Human fetus secretes thyroxine from the 12th week of gestation.
Thyroxine and insulin have an important role in regulating tissue accretion and differentiation in the fetus. Both hormones are required for normal growth and development, particularly during late gestation. Growth hormone, though present in high levels in fetus, is not known to influence fetal growth. Fetal growth factors. A large number of growth factors are synthesized locally in fetal tissues, and act principally by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms.
Their prime effect is on cell division, though they also influence other aspects of tissue growth. These factors can be both growth promoting or inhibitory.
As in most species, fetal weight directly correlates with placental weight at term. Fetal growth is highly dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the placenta. With advancing gestation, the weight of the placenta increases to cater to the increased needs of the baby.
There are important functional and structural changes in the placenta that make this adaptation more efficient. The total villous surface area increases, the diffusion distance decreases, the fetal capillaries dilate and the resistance in fetoplacental vasculature falls.
This positive remodeling facilitates nutrient transport across the placenta. Maternal factors. The mother's own fetal and childhood growth and her nutrient intake and body composition at the time of conception and during pregnancy, play an important role in determining fetal size. Teenage or advanced age, recent pregnancy, high parity and anemia negatively influence fetal size and health. Maternal intake of tobacco smoked or chewed and drug or alcohol abuse also retard fetal growth.
Obstetric complications such as pregnancy induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and multiple pregnancies produce fetal growth restriction. Postnatal Period The growth of the child during postnatal life is determined by genetic potential as well as internal and external influences. Both chromosomal disorders and mutations in specific genes can affect growth. Chromosomal defects like Turner syndrome and Down syndrome manifest as growth retardation.
Mutation of single genes may result in inherited retardation of growth, e. Prader-Willi syndrome and Noonan syndrome.
While most disorders lead to short stature, some genetic defects can also result in tall stature, e. Klinefelter syndrome and Sotos syndrome. IUGR resulting in low birthweight LBW constitutes an important risk factor for postnatal malnutrition and poor growth. LBW increases the odds of underweight, stunting and wasting in the first 5 yr of life by 3 to 5 times. It was recently reported that a third and a fifth of infants have wasting and stunting, respectively, even at birth Fig.
During early infancy, exclusive breastfeeding provides adequate nutrition, prevents infections and protects the infants from further undernourishment. However, at months, the common practice of supplementing the infants with animal milk increases morbidity due to infections leading to underweight and stunting.
Subsequently, faulty complementary feeding practices starting too late, using too little and very less calorie dense foods along with poor hygiene lead to a further rise in rates of underweight and stunting. Hormonal influence. Normal development cannot proceed without the right milieu of hormones in the body throughout childhood and adolescence. Absence of growth hormone or thyroxine results in dwarfism, underscoring the importance of these factors in promoting growth.
These hormones influence both somatic and skeletal growth. During adolescence, androgens and estrogens have an important influence on the growth spurt and final adult height.Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
However, at months, the common practice of supplementing the infants with animal milk increases morbidity due to infections leading to underweight and stunting. This manifests as increase in the protein to DNA ratio. The free book has over pages and is the 8th edition of the series.
Subsequently, faulty complementary feeding practices starting too late, using too little and very less calorie dense foods along with poor hygiene lead to a further rise in rates of underweight and stunting. For every 5, population, there is a subcenter where Auxiliary Nurse Midwives A.
ICDS is being strengthened, particularly in high burden districts to address childhood undernutrition. IUGR resulting in low birthweight LBW constitutes an important risk factor for postnatal malnutrition and poor growth.
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