COMPUTER HISTORY PDF
History of Computers. Earliest Computer. • Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers. • These human computers were. using punched cards. Considered first computer programmer. Ada programming language named after her custom-speeches.com:custom-speeches.com A Brief History Of Computing. Pre-Electronic Computing (up to the 's). Principles of Computing, Carnegie Mellon University Based on Slides.
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5. Explain how networking technology and the Internet has changed our world. 6. Discuss the lessons that can be learned from studying the computer's history. A Brief History of Computers. By. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay. Assistant Professor. Dept of Computer Sc and Engg. IIT Madras. History of Computers: From. Abacus to Smart-phones. Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: Various devices that have been used for computations in the past.
Stepped Reckoner In , Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invented Stepped Reckoner which was automatically performing the operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Jacquard Loom Joseph- Marie Jacquard invented a mechanical loom called Jacquard loom in the year It was controlled by punch cards and was an automatic loom.
Arithmometer In , Thomas de Colmar invented a mechanical calculator called arithmometers. It was a successful and useful machine which could perform the basic mathematical calculations.
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Difference Engine and Analytical Engine: Charles Babbage invented difference engine and analytical engine in the year and respectively. It was the foremost mechanical computer used to tabulate the polynomial functions. He perceptively foresaw revolutionary social and ethical consequences. In , for example, in his book Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, he said the following: It has long been clear to me that the modern ultra-rapid computing machine was in principle an ideal central nervous system to an apparatus for automatic control; and that its input and output need not be in the form of numbers or diagrams.
It might very well be, respectively, the readings of artificial sense organs, such as photoelectric cells or thermometers, and the performance of motors or solenoids Long before Nagasaki and the public awareness of the atomic bomb, it had occurred to me that we were here in the presence of another social potentiality of unheard-of importance for good and for evil.
Although Wiener did not use the term "computer ethics" which came into common use more than two decades later , he laid down a comprehensive foundation which remains today a powerful basis for computer ethics research and analysis.
Wiener's book included 1 an account of the purpose of a human life, 2 four principles of justice, 3 a powerful method for doing applied ethics, 4 discussions of the fundamental questions of computer ethics, and 5 examples of key computer ethics topics. On his view, the integration of computer technology into society will eventually constitute the remaking of society -- the "second industrial revolution".
It will require a multi-faceted process taking decades of effort, and it will radically change everything. A project so vast will necessarily include a wide diversity of tasks and challenges. Workers must adjust to radical changes in the work place; governments must establish new laws and regulations; industry and businesses must create new policies and practices; professional organizations must develop new codes of conduct for their members; sociologists and psychologists must study and understand new social and psychological phenomena; and philosophers must rethink and redefine old social and ethical concepts.
Over the next two decades, Parker went on to produce books, articles, speeches and workshops that re-launched the field of computer ethics, giving it momentum and importance that continue to grow today. Although Parker's work was not informed by a general theoretical framework, it is the next important milestone in the history of computer ethics after Wiener.
In his first experiment with ELIZA, he scripted it to provide a crude imitation of "a Rogerian psychotherapist engaged in an initial interview with a patient". Weizenbaum was shocked at the reactions people had to his simple computer program: some practicing psychiatrists saw it as evidence that computers would soon be performing automated psychotherapy. Even computer scholars at MIT became emotionally involved with the computer, sharing their intimate thoughts with it. Weizenbaum was extremely concerned that an "information processing model" of human beings was reinforcing an already growing tendency among scientists, and even the general public, to see humans as mere machines.
Weizenbaum's book, Computer Power and Human Reason [Weizenbaum, ], forcefully expresses many of these ideas. Weizenbaum's book, plus the courses he offered at MIT and the many speeches he gave around the country in the s, inspired many thinkers and projects in computer ethics.
In the mid s, Walter Maner then of Old Dominion University in Virginia; now at Bowling Green State University in Ohio began to use the term "computer ethics" to refer to that field of inquiry dealing with ethical problems aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology.
Maner offered an experimental course on the subject at Old Dominion University. During the late s and indeed into the mid s , Maner generated much interest in university-level computer ethics courses. He offered a variety of workshops and lectures at computer science conferences and philosophy conferences across America.
In he also self-published and disseminated his Starter Kit in Computer Ethics, which contained curriculum materials and pedagogical advice for university teachers to develop computer ethics courses. The Starter Kit included suggested course descriptions for university catalogs, a rationale for offering such a course in the university curriculum, a list of course objectives, some teaching tips and discussions of topics like privacy and confidentiality, computer crime, computer decisions, technological dependence and professional codes of ethics.
Maner's trailblazing course, plus his Starter Kit and the many conference workshops he conducted, had a significant impact upon the teaching of computer ethics across America. Many university courses were put in place because of him, and several important scholars were attracted into the field. Because of the work of Parker, Weizenbaum, Maner and others, the foundation had been laid for computer ethics as an academic discipline.
Unhappily, Wiener's ground-breaking achievements were essentially ignored. The time was right, therefore, for an explosion of activities in computer ethics. In addition, Deborah Johnson of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute published Computer Ethics [Johnson, ], the first textbook -- and for more than a decade, the defining textbook -- in the field.
There were also relevant books published in psychology and sociology: for example, Sherry Turkle of MIT wrote The Second Self [Turkle, ], a book on the impact of computing on the human psyche; and Judith Perrolle produced Computers and Social Change: Information, Property and Power [Perrolle, ], a sociological approach to computing and human values. In the early 80s, the present author Terrell Ward Bynum assisted Maner in publishing his Starter Kit in Computer Ethics [Maner, ] at a time when most philosophers and computer scientists considered the field to be unimportant [See Maner, ].
Bynum furthered Maner's mission of developing courses and organizing workshops, and in , edited a special issue of Metaphilosophy devoted to computer ethics [Bynum, ]. In Bynum and Maner convened the first international multidisciplinary conference on computer ethics, which was seen by many as a major milestone of the field. It brought together, for the first time, philosophers, computer professionals, sociologists, psychologists, lawyers, business leaders, news reporters and government officials.
It generated a set of monographs, video programs and curriculum materials [see van Speybroeck, July ]. In Rogerson's view, there was need in the mids for a "second generation" of computer ethics developments: The mids has heralded the beginning of a second generation of Computer Ethics.
The time has come to build upon and elaborate the conceptual foundation whilst, in parallel, developing the frameworks within which practical action can occur, thus reducing the probability of unforeseen effects of information technology application [Rogerson, Spring , 2; Rogerson and Bynum, ].
Defining the Field of Computer Ethics From the s through the s, therefore, there was no discipline known as "computer ethics" notwithstanding the work of Wiener and Parker. However, beginning with Walter Maner in the s, active thinkers in computer ethics began trying to delineate and define computer ethics as a field of study.
Let us briefly consider five such attempts: When he decided to use the term "computer ethics" in the mids, Walter Maner defined the field as one which examines "ethical problems aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology". Some old ethical problems, he said, are made worse by computers, while others are wholly new because of information technology. By analogy with the more developed field of medical ethics, Maner focused attention upon applications of traditional ethical theories used by philosophers doing "applied ethics" -- especially analyses using the utilitarian ethics of the English philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, or the rationalist ethics of the German philosopher Immanual Kant.
In her book, Computer Ethics, Deborah Johnson  defined the field as one which studies the way in which computers "pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms in uncharted realms," [Johnson, page 1].
Like Maner before her, Johnson recommended the "applied ethics" approach of using procedures and concepts from utilitarianism and Kantianism.
But, unlike Maner, she did not believe that computers create wholly new moral problems. Rather, she thought that computers gave a "new twist" to old ethical issues which were already well known.
It is independent of any specific philosopher's theory; and it is compatible with a wide variety of methodological approaches to ethical problem-solving.
Over the past decade, Moor's definition has been the most influential one. He defined computer ethics as a field concerned with "policy vacuums" and "conceptual muddles" regarding the social and ethical use of information technology: A typical problem in computer ethics arises because there is a policy vacuum about how computer technology should be used.
Computers provide us with new capabilities and these in turn give us new choices for action. Often, either no policies for conduct in these situations exist or existing policies seem inadequate. A central task of computer ethics is to determine what we should do in such cases, that is, formulate policies to guide our actions One difficulty is that along with a policy vacuum there is often a conceptual vacuum.
Although a problem in computer ethics may seem clear initially, a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle. What is needed in such cases is an analysis that provides a coherent conceptual framework within which to formulate a policy for action [Moor, , ].
Moor said that computer technology is genuinely revolutionary because it is "logically malleable": Computers are logically malleable in that they can be shaped and molded to do any activity that can be characterized in terms of inputs, outputs and connecting logical operations Because logic applies everywhere, the potential applications of computer technology appear limitless. The computer is the nearest thing we have to a universal tool.
Indeed, the limits of computers are largely the limits of our own creativity [Moor, , ] According to Moor, the computer revolution is occurring in two stages. The first stage was that of "technological introduction" in which computer technology was developed and refined. This already occurred in America during the first forty years after the Second World War.
The second stage -- one that the industrialized world has only recently entered -- is that of "technological permeation" in which technology gets integrated into everyday human activities and into social institutions, changing the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as "money", "education", "work", and "fair elections".
Moor's way of defining the field of computer ethics is very powerful and suggestive. It is broad enough to be compatible with a wide range of philosophical theories and methodologies, and it is rooted in a perceptive understanding of how technological revolutions proceed.
Currently it is the best available definition of the field. Nevertheless, there is yet another way of understanding computer ethics that is also very helpful--and compatible with a wide variety of theories and approaches. According to this alternative account, computer ethics identifies and analyzes the impacts of information technology upon human values like health, wealth, opportunity, freedom, democracy, knowledge, privacy, security, self-fulfillment, and so on.
This very broad view of computer ethics embraces applied ethics, sociology of computing, technology assessment, computer law, and related fields; and it employs concepts, theories and methodologies from these and other relevant disciplines [Bynum, ].
The fruitfulness of this way of understanding computer ethics is reflected in the fact that it has served as the organizing theme of major conferences like the National Conference on Computing and Values , and it is the basis of recent developments such as Brey's "disclosive computer ethics" methodology [Brey ] and the emerging research field of "value-sensitive computer design".
In the s, Donald Gotterbarn became a strong advocate for a different approach to defining the field of computer ethics. In Gotterbarn's view, computer ethics should be viewed as a branch of professional ethics, which is concerned primarily with standards of practice and codes of conduct of computing professionals: There is little attention paid to the domain of professional ethics -- the values that guide the day-to-day activities of computing professionals in their role as professionals. By computing professional I mean anyone involved in the design and development of computer artifacts The ethical decisions made during the development of these artifacts have a direct relationship to many of the issues discussed under the broader concept of computer ethics [Gotterbarn, ].
While popular usage of the word "computer" is synonymous with a personal electronic computer, the modern  definition of a computer is literally: There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computers , DNA computers , neural computers , and quantum computers. Most computers are universal, and are able to calculate any computable function , and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed.
However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems; for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring very quickly.
There are many types of computer architectures:. Of all these abstract machines , a quantum computer holds the most promise for revolutionizing computing. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators.
The Church—Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: Therefore, any type of computer netbook , supercomputer , cellular automaton , etc. A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to, without regard to efficiency, alternative solutions, possible shortcuts, or possible errors in the code. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
Artificial intelligence based products generally fall into two major categories: Rule based systems attempt to represent the rules used by human experts and tend to be expensive to develop.
Pattern based systems use data about a problem to generate conclusions. Examples of pattern based systems include voice recognition, font recognition, translation and the emerging field of on-line marketing. As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.
The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Automatic general-purpose device for performing arithmetic or logical operations. For other uses, see Computer disambiguation. Main article: History of computing hardware. Analog computer. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Digital computer. Discuss May Main articles: Computer hardware , Personal computer hardware , Central processing unit , and Microprocessor. Play media. CPU design and Control unit.
Arithmetic logic unit. Computer data storage. Computer multitasking. Computer software. Computer program and Computer programming. Programming language. Low-level programming language. High-level programming language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Computer networking and Internet. Human computer. See also: Harvard Computers. Information technology portal.
Glossary of computers Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security Glossary of computer hardware terms History of computer science List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers List of pioneers in computer science Pulse computation TOP list of most powerful computers Unconventional computing.
Oxford English Dictionary 2 ed. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 April Online Etymology Dictionary. The containers thus served as something of a bill of lading or an accounts book.
In order to avoid breaking open the containers, first, clay impressions of the tokens were placed on the outside of the containers, for the count; the shapes of the impressions were abstracted into stylized marks; finally, the abstract marks were systematically used as numerals; these numerals were finally formalized as numbers.
Eventually Schmandt-Besserat estimates it took years Archived 30 January at the Wayback Machine the marks on the outside of the containers were all that were needed to convey the count, and the clay containers evolved into clay tablets with marks for the count. Retrieved 1 July Wiet, V. Elisseeff, P.
Wolff, J. Naudu History of Mankind, Vol 3: The Great medieval Civilisations , p. High tech from Ancient Greece". The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. IEEE Micro. Turk J Elec Engin. Charles Babbage, Father of the Computer. Crowell-Collier Press. Online stuff.
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The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse. EPE Online. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 17 June Andrew from: The New York Times.
The five generations of computers
Der Computer. Mein Lebenswerk in German 3rd ed. The Story of IT: Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 1 June The First Electronic Computer. Oxford University Press , pp. BBC News. Retrieved October 14, The National Museum of Computing. Sperry Rand. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. British Computer Society. Retrieved 10 January The British Computer Society, pp. Introduction to Transistor Circuits. Oliver and Boyd. Media Technology and Society: A History: From the Telegraph to the Internet.
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Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 26 June All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in bit forms before their bit incarnations were introduced. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case.
Some computers have instructions that are partially interpreted by the control unit with further interpretation performed by another device. For example, EDVAC , one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. Eck The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. A K Peters, Ltd. Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics.
A Brief History of Computer Networking
CRC Press. Introduction to the Basic Computer. Porat Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors.
A Concise Guide for the New User. Davis Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory.
An x compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers.
Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly, while running, by another program called an interpreter. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations.
This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. Retrieved 17 February Hughes Systems, Experts, and Computers. MIT Press. The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: Internet Society.
Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 29 January Dumas Computer Architecture: Fundamentals and Principles of Computer Design. Evans, Claire L. Broad Band: New York: Fuegi, J. Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps". American Mathematical Society.
Retrieved 5 April Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Digital Equipment Corporation Maynard, MA: Digital Equipment Corporation. Verma, G. Swade, Doron D. February Scientific American. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 27 November Lavington, Simon A History of Manchester Computers 2 ed. The British Computer Society.
Light, Jennifer S. Technology and Culture. Registration required help. Stokes, Jon Inside the Machine: San Francisco: No Starch Press. Zuse, Konrad The Computer — My life. Felt, Dorr E. Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine.
Washington Institute. Ifrah, Georges Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently and thereby help reduce programmer error. Blaise Pascal invented pascaline in ; it was the expensive machine which has the limitations in performing additions and subtractions. The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed.
This enabled these machines to run several applications at once using a central program which functioned to monitor memory. Published in the June issue of Computers and Society.