TEXTBOOK OF OPERATIVE DENTISTRY PDF
Textbook of OPERATIVE custom-speeches.com Ayko Nyush. Uploaded by. Ayko Nyush. Textbook of OPERATIVE DENTISTRY Textbook of OPERATIVE DENTISTRY. ().pdf Textbook of Operative Dentistry First Edition: Second Edition: ISBN Printed at Dedicated to Prisha and Vedaant. Sturdevant's art & science of operative dentistry-4th ed. Art & Science of Operative A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume I – Basic Electrical Engineering.
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Textbook of Operative custom-speeches.com - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The book is valuable in its multiple-disciplinary approach and its discussion of the controversies regarding early or late surgery. The anatomy section, Chapter. Here you will find ALL FREE BOOKs OF DENTISTRY in PDF / NVA reader format which uploaded in links. Instagram: @dent_books.
Identify—identify and assess risk factors early 2. The recent concept of treatment of dental caries comes under minimally Introduction to Operative Dentistry invasive dentistry. In December Prevent—prevent disease by eliminating risk factors 3.
In the s. Caries Dental caries is an infectious microbiological disease of 3 the teeth which results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Root caries. Many advances were made during the s in materials and equipments. The scientific foundation for Fig. By this time. Based on anatomy of the surface involved dental caries can be of following types: Barbers were doing well for dentistry by removing teeth with dental problems.
Till AD. Arthur Black. As dentistry evolved dental surgeons began filling teeth with core metals. In Initially MI dentistry focused on minimal removal of diseased tooth structure but later it evolved for preventive measures to control disease. Restore—restore the health of the oral environment Fig. In early part of s.
Fractured and discolored tooth 4 Fig. Textbook of Operative Dentistry Fig. Loss of tooth materal by mechanical means other than These teeth are often unattractive or prone to excessive by opposing teeth Fig. Discolored teeth requiring aesthetic improvement. Abrasion of teeth Fig. Abfraction and Erosion Teeth Fig. Loss of the Tooth Structure due to Attrition. Erosion Aesthetic Iimprovement Fig. Attrition of teeth Fig. Mechanical wear between opposing teeth commonly due Sometimes teeth do not develop normally and there to excessive masticatory forces Fig.
Many advancements have been made in the area control to safeguard both patient and the dentist of operative dentistry so as to meet its goals in better ways. Advances in visual method i. Here teeth are restored to their normal health. The modern concept of operative on the treatment of other disciplines. Basically advances in operative dentistry has occurred 5 in following areas: Defective amalagam restoration requiring replacement Preservation Restoration Replacement or Repair Preservation of the vitality and periodontal support of remaining tooth structure.
Preservation of optimum Repair or replacement of previous defective restoration health of teeth and soft tissue of oral preparation is is indicated for operative treatment Fig. It is the iii. Ultrasonic imaging Proper diagnosis is vital for treatment planning. It includes the procedures undertaken after signs and symptoms of disease have appeared. Caries detecting dyes. That is extension various tooth tissues. Advances in diagnosis Purpose of operative dentistry basically is: Later on.
Prevention To prevent any recurrence of the causative disease and their defects. Ultrasonic illumination Diagnosis ii. Interception Preventing further loss of tooth structure by stabilizing an active disease process. Textbook of Operative Dentistry 6. Tuned aperture computerized tomography Advances in other restorations: Recent advances in treatment planning 5. Magnetic resonance microimaging MRMI. For convenience human dentition is divided into four quadrants viz.
It includes development. Photograph showing division of whole dentition into and left side. Dental anatomy is also a taxonomical science. They help in tearing and cutting of food Fig. They help in cutting the food Fig. They help in tearing and grinding of the food.
These teeth also help The square-shaped teeth located in front of the mouth. Photograph showing premolars 8 Fig. The total number of teeth in The sharp teeth located near the corner of the mouth. Primary teeth erupt at the age between Because of their anatomy and long root.
Maxillary canine showing sharp tip and long root Fig. There are six molars can be divided into following classes: Facially they resemble canines and lingually as molars Fig. They have multiple cusps which help Incisors in crushing and grinding the food. Premolars There are a total of eight premolars inside the mouth present after the canines. Photograph showing molars. Most children develop all their teeth. Maxillary central and lateral incisors Fig. Universal system ADA system primary teeth by alphabets.
There are a total of 32 permanent teeth quadrants of tooth positions. The outer ring Fig. This makes of 16 teeth may be found on each complete arch.
The inner ring represents the notation of both deciduous and permanent dentitions deciduous teeth The second set of teeth. Universal primary teeth are indicated by a letter A to E. Diagram showing presentation of Zsigmondy-Palmer represents the permanent teeth. The three most commons systems are midline. Figure showing two sets of teeth. Total number of teeth are divided into Adult teeth were numbered 1 to 8 and the primary two arches.
Palmer changed this to A. Zsigmondy-Palmer system permanent teeth are described by numbers while 2. V from the the upper and lower jaws respectively.
This system is most popular in the United States. For example. Difficult to remember each letter or molar and follows around the upper arch to the upper number of tooth left third molar For permanent teeth.
The universal numbering system uses a unique letter or B is maxillary right deciduous first molar number for each tooth. Textbook of Operative Dentistry This two digit system was first introduced in which later on. The permanent teeth quadrants are designated 1 to 4 such that 1 is upper right. Now it is gaining popularity in India also. This system is commonly practiced in European countries and Canada.
Both digits should be pronounced separately while communication. Unique letter or number for each tooth Permanent Teeth avoiding confusions.
In the original system. Diagram showing presentation of universal system upper right canine is 13 and the left is 23 Figs 2. Permanent Teeth Fig. Comparison of Tooth Numbering Systems As a result. The palmer system uses the number and symbol. Teeth are numbered from the universal system or the permanent left maxillary number 1 to 5.
Since the number. Further confusion may Deciduous Teeth result if a number is given on a tooth without assuming a In the deciduous dentition the numbering is common notation method.
Distal Tooth surface away from the anterior midline. Labial Tooth Nomenclature Tooth surface facing the lip. Facial Labial and buccal surface collectively form facial surface. Mesial Tooth surface toward the anterior midline. Diagrammatic representation of Masticating surface of posterior teeth in molar or different surfaces of teeth premolar. Occlusal Fig. Anatomical crown and clinical crown lesion. Active Carious Lesion A progressive lesion is described as an active carious Fig.
Anatomic Crown It is part of tooth that is covered with enamel Fig. Gingival Tooth surface near to gingiva. Residual Caries 14 It is demineralized tissue left in place before a restoration is placed. In case of gingival recession. When there is gingival recession. Cervical Tooth surface near the cervix or neck of tooth. Photograph showing dental caries Recurrent Caries Lesions developing adjacent or beneath the restorations are referred to as either recurrent or secondary caries Fig.
Clinical Crown It is part of tooth that is visible in oral cavity Fig. Acute caries travels towards the pulp at a very fast speed. Attrion is accelerated by. They appear dark in color and hard in consistency. Chronic Dental Caries Chronic caries progresses very slowly towards the pulp.
Rampant incisors Fig. Arrested carious lesion is characterized by a large open preparation which no longer retains food and becomes Acute Dental Caries self-cleansing. It occurs both on occlusal and lingual surfaces and on proximal surfaces Fig. Radiograph showing recurrent caries Fig.
Pits and Fissure Caries Rampant Caries Pit and fissure caries are the caries which occur on It is the name given to multiple active carious lesions occlusal surface of posterior teeth and buccal and lingual occurring in the same patient. The clinical pattern is characteristic. Pit and fissure caries Attrition It is defined as a physiological.
Localized Non-hereditary Enamel Hypoplasia It refers to the localized defects in the crown portion of tooth caused due to injury to ameloblasts during the enamel matrix formative stage. These lesions may appear as isolated pits or widespread linear defects.
In these. C and D. If resorption occurs.
Injury to ameloblasts may be caused by the following: Erosion Localized Non-hereditary Enamel Textbook of Operative Dentistry It can be defined as a loss of tooth substance by a chemical Hypocalcification process that does not involve known bacterial action. Abrasion either a physiologic or a pathologic process resulting in results in saucer-shaped or wedge-shaped indentations the loss of dentin.
The color of Abfractions are the microfractures which appear in the lesion changes fast from chalky to yellow. The It refers to the localized defects in crown portion of tooth eroded area appears smooth. In other words. It is the normally visible dental tissue of a tooth physiology and occlusion is the foundation stone of which is mainly responsible for color.
One of the main goal in of morphology. One of the interesting features of Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized enamel is that it cannot repair itself. The teeth consist of enamel. Though the dentistry mainly revolves around simulating natural dental tissues are passive.
Diagrammatic representation of enamel. Each rod has a head and tail. Thickness of enamel decreases junction towards the outer surface of enamel in a ratio gradually from cusps or incisal edges to cemento-enamel of 1: Towards the incisal edge these become increasingly oblique and are almost vertical at the cusp tips. Inorganic content by vol. This change in direction of enamel rods should be kept in mind during tooth preparation so as to avoid unsupported enamel rods.
Textbook of Operative Dentistry Composition 1. Enamel rods are arranged in such planes so as to resist the maximum masticatory forces. In transverse sections. In the cervical region. The average thickness of enamel at the incisal edges or oval.
Each rod formed of about Thickness 18 unit crystal length and 40 units wide and 20 unit thick The thickness of enamel varies in different areas of the in three-dimensional hexagon. The head is occlusally in deciduous while in permanent.
Textbook of Operative Dentistry
Rods are oriented at prependicular to the dentino-enamel junction. The rod is formed of number of hydroxyapatite crystals which vary in size. Diagram showing direction of enamel rods in Organic content by vol. Main inorganic content in the enamel is hydroxyapatite. Initially there is wavy coarse in one-third of enamel thickness adjacent to DEJ. In addition to inorganic content.
The rods or the prisms run in an alternating coarse of clockwise and anticlockwise direction twisting course. Rods may also resemble fish scales. The cervical enamel rods of deciduous teeth are inclined incisally or occlusally. When compared. Gnarled enamel 2. The hardness also decreases from outer surface of thus it plays role in spread of dental infection. Structure present in enamel 1.
Color of tooth mainly depends upon three factors: This part of enamel is resistant to cutting a color of underlying dentin b thickness of enamel while tooth preparation. Thickness of enamel Structure Present in Enamel Fig. Hardness of enamel is tion of enamel proteins. The resemble tufts of grass. Prismless layer 8.
Bands of Hunter-Schreger 19 3. For this reason during tooth preparation. Dentino-enamel junction Fig. Hunter-Schreger bands usually occur because of mental and mineralization stage. They are considered to resist and disperse mineralization stage like antibiotic usage and excess the strong forces. Hypomineralized structure in the enamel. The color of enamel is usually gray and translucent in nature. Also the density of enamel increases from dentino-enamel junction to the outer Structure of Teeth surface.
This consists of bundles of enamel rods which interwine in an irregular Color manner with other group of rods. Anomalies occurring during develop. Enamel lamellae 5. They contain greater concentra- specific gravity of enamel is 2. Enamel tufts 4.
This results in alternating light and dark zones under the microscope. Occlusal pits and fissures. It is best seen Color of enamel is affected by in longitudinal ground sections seen under reflected light.
Diagram showing different 9. They are named so because they modulus of elasticity and low tensile strength.
They are mainly found in the inner surface of tooth. Striae of Retzius 7. It is brittle. The translucency of Bands of Hunter-Schreger enamel is directly related to degree of mineralization and homogenicity. Enamel spindles 6. Enamel Tufts Strength Enamel tufts are ribbon-like structures which run from Enamel has a rigid structure. A lamella at the base of an occlusal fissure provides an appropriate pathway for bacteria and initiate caries.
These are formed at the junction and C may extend into dentin.
Ten Cate stated that tufts and lamellae are of no significance and do not appear to be sites of increased vulnerability to caries attack.
They contains organic substances. It is mainly responsible for color. This helps in better interlocking between enamel Pincus suggested that if developing cusps fail to and dentin. Enamel Lamellae Prismless Layer These are leaf like defects present in enamel and may There is structureless layer of enamel near the cervical extend to DEJ.
These are continuous around the tooth and parallel the CEJ. Grooves Various studies have shown that lamellae might be are developed by smooth coalescence of developmental the site of entry of caries. Such a gap may vary in size from a crack or Significance: Shape and nature of the dentino-enamel lamella. It is hardest structure of tooth which supports when viewed microscopically in cross-section.
Showing pits and fissures of premolars and molars Striae of Retzius They appear as brownish bands in the ground sections Significance: Three types of lamellae are commonly seen: Functions of Enamel Striae of Retzius are stripes that appear on enamel 1.
Spindles serve as pain receptors. This is a hypermineralized zone and is about coalesce when forming a fissure. It also supports the underlying dentin and pulp. Retzius end. Enamel covers the dentin in crown portion while Structure of Teeth points during mastication. Hypo- mineralized areas present in the enamel are more permeable than mineralized area.
The unity of dentin-pulp is responsible for dentin formation and protection of the tooth. Enamel has been considered to be permeable to some ions and molecules. Dentin So. Acid etching causes preferential dissolution of enamel surface and helps in increasing the bonding between resin and enamel.
The organic components consist primarily of collagen type 1. Dentin is type of specialized connective tissue which is mesodermal in origin. Sometimes bruxism or contacts with porcelain also lead to attrition Fig. Acid etching has been considered as accepted procedure for improving the bonding between resin and enamel. Attrition of teeth. The change usually seen in enamel with age dentin-pulp complex.
Deep pits and fissures making areas mineralized areas are more sensitive to dental caries. Acid etching is used in fissure sealants and bonding of restorative material to enamel. Compressive hardness is about Fig. Dentinal tubules dentin is flexible in nature. Composition by wt. The flexibility of dentin provides support or cushion to the brittle enamel. Peritubular dentin 4.
Color Structure of Dentin The color of dentin is slightly darker than enamel and is generally light yellowish in young individuals while it Structure of dentin becomes darker with age. Primary dentin a. Predentin or black Fig. Intertubular dentin 5. The modulus of elasticity is about 1. Numbers Reparative dentin 8.
Dentinal tubules fluids and other irritants. On constant exposure to oral 1. Hardness The hardness of dentin is one-fifth that of enamel. The ends of the tubules are perpendicular to dentino-enamel and dentino-cemental junctions Fig. Each dentinal tubule is lined with a layer of peritubular dentin. As the modulus of elasticity of dentin is low.
Circumpulpal 6. Its hardness at the DEJ is 3 times more than that near the pulp so it is important to keep the depth of preparation near the DEJ. Mantle b. It is around Diagram showing course of dentinal tubules MPa.
Photograph showing dark colored mineralized than the surrounding intertubular dentin. Secondary dentin 7. Sclerotic dentin Dentinal Tubules Table 3. Hardness is not the same in all its thickness.
The dentinal tubules have lateral branches throughout the dentin. With advancing age and various irritants. In this. Intertubular dentin composition of the primary dentin. Number of dentinal tubules increase from In this case. Primary Dentin This area becomes harder. In sclerotic dentin. Sclerotic Dentin Intertubular Dentin It occurs due to aging or chronic and mild irritation such This dentin is present between the tubules which is less as slowly advancing caries which causes a change in the mineralized than peritubular dentin.
These are called dead tracts due to asymmetrical and complicated as compared to primary appearance of black under transmitted light. Reparative dentin Peritubular Dentin matrix has decreased permeability. Circumpulpal dentin: It forms the remaining primary cleanable surface on outward portion of reactive dentin. This layer of dentin. Mantle dentin: At the outermost layer of the primary Reactive sclerotic dentin: Reactive sclerotic dentin occurs dentin. If the injury is severe and causes odontoblast cell and proteoglycans.
In addition to an odontoblast Tertiary dentin frequently formed as a response to process. Secondary Dentin resulting in empty dental tubules which appear black Secondary dentin is formed after completion of root when ground sections of dentin are viewed under 23 formation.
It is first Also the tubular pattern of the reparative dentin ranges formed dentin and is not mineralized. It continues to grow till 3 Psysiologic sclerotic dentin: Sclerotic dentin occurs due years after tooth eruption. It is formed as a result of initial mineralization reaction by newly differentiated Eburnated dentin: It is type of reactive sclerotic dentin Structure of Teeth odontoblasts.
Dead Tracts This dentin outlines the pulp chamber and therefore it may be referred to as circumpulpal dentin. Secondary dentin forms at a slower rate than mm2 at DEJ to It is This type of dentin usually results due to moderate type formed before root completion.
Unlike physiological dentin. Type of cells Usually formed by primary Formed by primary odontoblasts Secondary odontoblasts or odontoblasts undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of pulps 3.
Orientation of tubules Regular Irregular Atubular 5. Clinical Considerations of Dentin 1. Dentin should always be protected by liners. Defensive in action initiating pulpal defence mechanism. The dehydration of Fig. Provide strength to the tooth 2. Etching of dentin causes removal of smear layer and 5.
Diagram showing fluid movement in dentinal dentin by air blasts causes outward fluid movement tubules resulting in dentin hypersensitivity and stimulates the mechanoreceptor of the 24 odontoblast. Offers protection of pulp Textbook of Operative Dentistry 3.
Tooth preparations should be done under constant air water spray to avoid build up of heat formation which. Permeability More Less Least Functions of dentin 1. This forms a layer on 7. Provides flexibility to the tooth 4.
Location Found in all areas of dentin It is not uniform. This can be done by 4.
Craig's restorative dental materials, 13th edition
Dentinal tubules are composed of odontoblastic processes and dentinal fluid. Rate of formation Rapid Slow Rapid between 1. When tooth is cut. Definition Dentin formed before root Formed after root completion Formed as a response to any completion external stimuli such as dental caries. Affects the color of enamel 5. As dentin is known to provide strength and rigidity to the tooth.
Restoration should be well adapted to the preparation enamel of dentin called smear layer for bonding of walls so as to prevent microleakage and thus damage restorative materials to tooth structure.
Due to presence of the specialized cells. This zone lies next to subodontoblastic layer. Matrix a. Diagram showing different zones of dental pulp large nucleus which may contain up to 4 nucleoli.
Capillaries 4. Ultrastructure of the odontoblast shows Fig. The number of odontoblasts has been found in the range of This close relationship between are located within predentin matrix.
Cell Free Zone of Weil odontoblasts. The odontoblastic cell bodies form the cells.
The pulp is connective tissue system composed of cells. Central to odontoblasts is subodontoblastic layer. Cell rich zone. Due to lack of true collateral circulation. It contains plexuses of capillaries arterioles and venules as the largest vascular component. Cells a. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells Basically the pulp is divided into the central and the d.
Odontoblasts Histology of Dental Pulp b. It consists of specialized processes.
They are first type of cells encountered as pulp is approached from dentin. The pulp retains its ability of odontoblasts by proliferation and differentiation.
Barbers were doing well for dentistry by removing teeth with dental problems. As dentistry evolved dental surgeons began filling teeth with core metals. He provided scientific basis to dentistry because his writings developed the foundation of the profession and made the field of operative dentistry organized and scientific. The scientific foundation for Fig. In early part of s, progress in dental sciences and technologies was slow. Many advances were made during the s in materials and equipments.
By this time, it was also proved that dental plaque was the causative agent for caries. In the s, oral health science started moving toward an evidence-based approach for treatment of decayed teeth. The recent concept of treatment of dental caries comes under minimally Introduction to Operative Dentistry invasive dentistry.
Initially MI dentistry focused on minimal removal of diseased tooth structure but later it evolved for preventive measures to control disease. Current minimally intervention philosophy follows three concepts of disease treatment: 1.
The book is well organized and meticulously illustrated, encompassing all aspects of conservative dentistry, keeping in mind the syllabus prescribed by many universities in India.
The initial chapters follow the logical pattern dealing with introduction and basic principles of operative dentistry, which are very useful for the preclinical students. Chapters 7 to 12 depict information about clinical procedures such as cavity preparation, instrumentation, and related aspects. Further chapters on infection control and patient evaluation have been adequately dealt with and explained in an organized manner.
The chapters dealing with various restorative materials such as amalgam, composites, glass ionomers, ceramics, and direct and indirect gold restorations have been given a detailed insight with suggestion of innovative bits and hints of information based on the clinical experience and knowledge of the authors.
The description of cavity designs for various restorative materials is exhaustive, informative, and meticulous, especially with reference to internal features of cavity and cavo-surface treatment. Ideal treatment involves selecting intelligent alternatives without bypassing biologic, mechanical, functional, and esthetic requirements, and this aspect has been carefully depicted in relation to all restorative materials and tooth preparations.Cellular Secondary 1.
Share This Tweet. Translation is the motion of a rigid body in the mandibular condyles around which the mandible which a straight line passing through any two of its rotates. It is widely documented that it is not quantity but the frequency of carbohydrate intake which affects the occurrence of dental caries.
A progressive lesion is described as an active carious lesion. In this case. Each tooth in provide for escape of food from the occlusal surfaces the arch has two contacting members adjoining it.